Ottoman Empire History
Ottoman Empire ruled over the three continents for more than 600 years. This includes Bulgaria, Greece, Hungry, Jordan, Lebanon, Israel, Palestine, Macedonia, Romania, Syria, Arab & many countries from North Africa. At its peak, the area of this empire was around 1.8 million square kilometers in this time total of 36 Sultans ruled this Empire.
The first four Caliphates (Khulfa Rashdun), Muslims had many caliphates Which belong to firstly Banu Ummaya & then secondly to Banu Abbass But as time passed their influence weakened & they became History. Afterward, the Seljuks laid the foundation of their Seljuk empire in the areas around Persia. Which was considered to be a very powerful Empire. But as the saying goes, every rise is a fall. The Seljuk Empire was torn to pieces but part of it survived in the form of the Sultanate of Rome.
Rise and Fall of the Ottoman Empire
In the 13th century, the Mongols entered this empire which was already faltering. The result of the Mongol invasion was that different tribes in this kingdom declared their own independent governments in their respective regions. One of these tribes was the tribe of Osman Ghazi. At that time, Osman was ruling a very small area.
However, he was not called a king or a sultan at that time. Instead, he was called “Bey :, which means in English” Lord “. But Osman had dreamed of finding a great empire and he had already received the prophecies So, Osman Ghazi succeeded in laying the foundation of his empire At the same time, he started conquering the surrounding areas He was succeeded by his son Orhan ghazi who continued to spread the empire.
Orhan married a Byzantine princess, Thorodora Along with that, one of Europe’s most important cities, Gallipoli, was also conquered. Orhan Ghazi was successful in extending his Empire up to Europe After the death of Orhan Ghazi, his son Murad I spread the empire further into Europe. And conquered many important European regions But Murad I got Martyred in the Battle of Kosovo.
Then his son Beyazid I took his place Beyazid tried many times to conquer Constantinople, the capital of the Byzantine Empire, And later got Martyred in a battle near Ankara But after his martyrdom, a civil war broke out among his sons At last.
Mehmed I was successful in sitting on the Muhammad I continued to reunite the Sultanate again And after that, his son Murad II continued to do so After the Murad II, his son Muhammad II ascended the throne And he did what no sultan could do before He intended to conquer the Constantinople City and in 1453 he Conquered this City.
This city was then made the new capital of the Ottoman Empire because Muhammad II was successful in conquering a very important Byzantine city On the basis of this conquest, he was given the title “Mehmed the Conqueror” After him his son Bayezid II succeeded him Bayezid got really famous for one thing That he gave shelter to the Jews who were deported from Spain.
After that, such a person became the ruler of the Empire Who expanded the Empire to Asia, Africa, and the Regions of Arabia He was the son of Bayezid named “Selim I” He expanded the Empire to Syria, Arabia, Mesopotamia, and Egypt.
The power of the Abbasid Caliph was exhausted in Egypt Selim I took the title of “Caliph” from the Abbasid’s And then Selim I became the first Ottoman Caliph And the first one who was not Arab Selim’s Successor was “Sultan Suleiman” or Suleman the Magnificent “
He was famous for his justice and also for his Hostility against the Habsburg family in Germany This Sultan fell in love with his slave-girl whos named is Hurrem Sultan Who later became the Queen of the Ottoman Empire Sultan abolished all the traditions and got married to Hurrem Who later appeared to be very Powerful lady This Sultan was also famous for killing his own Son Mustafa Because he was thinking that his son was planning to overthrow his government?
In Suleiman Reign, The Empire was at its Peak and was expanded on Three continents After Suleiman I, Salim II took the charge as Sultan was the son of Hurrem While the Sultan’s daughter married a famous Ottoman Wazir named Rustam After Selim II the next Sultan was Murad III.
In his period Ottomans were ruling many lands of Asia, Europe, and Africa But at the same time this period was the turning point for ottomans The next important Sultan was Ahmed I Who built the famous “Sultan Ahmed Mosque” of Turkey Which is also known as Blue Mosque.
At this point we can see that the transfer of Power was very easy from Father to Son The reason was, after Sultan’s death, all his sons would fight and there would be a civil war The most Powerful Son would kill all his brothers, And took the charge as sultan This was the reason that Ottoman Family was not too big at any time As Sultan Ahmed was young and at that time he had no son so he ended this tradition.
Fall of the Ottoman Empire
In this reign, for the first time, an Ottoman Woman Kosem Sultan became the most powerful woman who took many important decisions for the Empire Sultan Ahmed I died at a young age and he was succeeded by his brother Mustafa I.
In the period it feels like the old tradition of killing own brothers why that tradition was so important for the Empire As that rule was abandoned so Ahmed’s Son Osman revolted against Mustafa He dethrones him and announce himself as Sultan But after some time, Osman was killed by the janissaries, and Mustafa I was again chosen as Sultan After Mustafa, two more sons of Sultan Ahmed took the throne respectively Firstly,
Murad IV took the throne at that time was under aged So Kosem Sultan was talking all the decisions for the Empire And she used to issue orders behind a curtain But When Murad got young still Kosem was taking all decisions and sitting on the throne indirectly After Murad,
his brother Ibrahim succeeded him Who was mentally unstable and because of this he was proved to be incapable Ibrahim turned against Kosem and Kosem killed him Ibrahim was succeeded by his youngest son Mehmed IV But he was also depending on Kosem for all decisions Sultan’s mother did not tolerate this, so she killed Kosem At that time there were many reasons for which Ottoman Empire was declining.
The Ottoman Army was losing many wars and hence the Ottoman Lands Afterwards, many grandsons of Ahmed I came to rule most of them were incapable and do not know how to Govern So let us go to the time of Mehmed II who changed many rules & regulations of the Empire Even though he changed the clothes of the Sultan and government officials.
During this time, the Ottomans have divided into two directions One direction was of Majeed I, and the other was of Abdul Aziz In the first world war the son of Sultan Majeed, Mehmed V was Sultan.
In this war Ottomans fought as an ally of Germany And at last, they lost this war Which resulted in the foundation of the Republic of Turkey by ‘Musfata Kamal‘ But the caliphate continued up till Majeed II And this last caliph was expelled from the country in 1924 which was the end of Ottoman Empire and Islamic Caliphate But at that time many individuals of the Ottoman Family were still alive And if they would have been the next Sultans if the Empire would not have been broken.
Currently, this family is known as “Osman oglu”, after being expelled from Tuki, they live in different parts of the world. Initially, he was banned from entering Turkey, which was later removed. The current head of the family is “Usman Ali Dunder” who was born in 1930. Said goodbye to this world on 8 January 2021 in Damascus, Syria