Osman I | Ottoman Empire, Marriage, Facts & Death

Osman I Summary

Osman I or Osman Ghazi was the first caliph and founder of the Ottoman Empire. who spent his whole life building the Ottoman Empire to fulfill the wish of his father Ertugrul Ghazi. In 656 AH, about 1258 AD, under the command of Halagu Khan, Mongolians attacked Baghdad, the capital of Abbasid’s Caliphate. Muslims faced too many hardships. The famous historian, Ibn-ul-Kaseer, has written that they returned to the city and killed everyone they found, including young, old, and aged people. Many saved their lives by hiding in non-settled wells, forests, and barren lands and disappeared for a long time. Several gathered in their houses and closed the doors on themselves.

The barbarians either broke down the doors or set fire to the whole house killing everyone who survived and fled to the hills and mountains. These rascals killed people in such a way that blood was flowing on the streets like rainwater. No one got salvation from them except Jews, Christians, and people who took refuge.

The Muslim Ummah weakened because of their sins and disobedience, and their power diminished. In these difficult conditions, a baby was born in the house of Erutugrul Ghazi, the leader of the famous Turk tribe Kayi. Their parents gave him the name Osman. Osman was born the same year the Mongols finished the Abbasid Caliphate in Baghdad.

Osman Ghazi Facts

Osman I or Osman Ghazi
Osman Ghazi, the First Sultan & Founder of the Ottoman Empire
Born1258, Sogut, Sultanate of Rum
Death1324, in Sogut
ParentsErtugrul Ghazi > Halima Sultan
SpouseRabia Bala Hatun > Malhun Hatun

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Osman Ghazi Early Life

Osman Ghazi was born on, 13 Feb 1258 CE, in Sogut, Seljuk Empire, Sultanate of Rum. Osman Ghazi was the third son of Ertugrul Ghazi and Halima Sultan. The eldest brother of Osman Ghazi was Gunduz Bey, and his younger brother was Savci Bey. But Osman Ghazi was smart and brave since childhood. Therefore, after the death of Osman Ghazi’s father, Ertugrul ghazi, Osman Ghazi was elected as the leader of the tribe.

Osman Ghazi conquered many forts and cities with his bravery and intelligence. Due to this, Osman I was getting stronger day by day. He had only one aim, for which he lost all his brothers, sisters, and friends. He was living only for his sultanate and his bravery, intelligence, and purpose of establishing the sultanate. He finally achieved it, and he laid the foundation of Sultanate-e-Osmania. The Ottoman Empire is named after Ertugrul Ghazi’s son Osman.

Osman Ghazi Marriage

Rabia Bala Hatun
Rabia Bala Hatun, 1st wife of Osman Ghazi

Osman Ghazi had 2 wives. Whose names were Rabia Bala Hatun and Malhun Hatun. Osman Ghazi’s first marriage was to Rabia Bala Hatun, who was the daughter of Sheikh Edbali, Sheikh Edbali was a great scholar at that time, and Osman was very close to Sheikh Edbali. Osman had a second child from Rabia Bala Hatun, named Alaeddin Pasha, and Alaeddin Pasha became the first military leader of the Ottoman Empire.

Osman’s first child was from Malhun Hatun and was named Orhan Ghazi. Who became the second Sultan of the Ottoman Empire after Osman Ghazi. Malhun Hatun was the daughter of Omer Bey. Omer Bey was one of the greatest chieftains of that time. Malhun Hatun fought many battles with Osman Ghazi and got many victories.

Malhun Hatun
Malhun Hatun, the Second wife of the Osman Ghazi, Statue in Eskişehir, Turkey

Malhun Hatun stayed by Osman Ghazi’s side and always followed the path shown by Osman Ghazi. But Osman Ghazi loved Rabia Bala Hatun more than Malhun Hatun. Because Rabia Bala Hatun was Osman’s first love, but despite this, both Osman’s wives, Malhun Hatun and Rabia Bala Hatun, were not jealous of each other and lived in love with each other.

Osman Ghazi Dream

Osman was attached wholeheartedly to a famous scholar of his age named Shiekh Edebali. He often went to meet him. Once Osman slept at the shrine of Shiekh Edebali, he dreamed of a moon that moved from the heart of Shiekh Edebali to his heart. And a tree grew from his side, which continued to grow even though its branches covered the whole earth and ocean.

The four largest rivers of the world flowed out of the roots of this tree. The four largest mountains in the world supported its stem. Then air started blowing very fast, and the tree leaves were blowing off in the direction of a great city located at the junction of the two largest continents and two largest oceans and appeared like a ring.

As soon as Osman was about to wear that ring, he woke up. When Osman told Sheikh Edbali about this dream, he congratulated him and said, “Allah (SWT) has chosen you and your children to serve Islam, and my daughter will marry you.

The rivers in the dream of Osman were Tigris, Euphrates, Niel, and Danyon. And the mountains were Toor, Balkan, Qaaf, At last. Afterward, in the age of Osman’s children, the Empire reached these mountains and rivers. That’s why this dream was a prediction of the expansion of the Empire.

The city in the dream was Constantinople, which was conquered by the son of Osman Ghazi, named Sultan Mohammad Fatih. No other family has ruled the world for long in Islamic History compared to the Ottoman family, and no other family could give a talented and worthy ruler like them. Osman Ghazi was valor and swagger concerned.

Osman Ghazi’s Honesty

He always dealt with justice. He led a simple life, and he never gathered belongings. Looted was divided into soldiers after getting the part of orphans and poor. He was generous, merciful, and hospitable. He is respected by the Turks because of these qualities even today.

After him, it was customary that whenever a new Sultan came to the throne, he was honored with the sword of Osman Ghazi and prayed, “May ALLAH (SWT) make him follow his predecessor Osman.” When Osman was called as a Judge in Karacahisar city, he gave the final decision in favor of a Byzantine against a Muslim.

Byzantine was much surprised, and he asked Osman, “ how can you decide in my favor when I am not a follower of Islam.” Osman replied, “ why should I not decide in your favor that ALLAH (SWT), whom we worship, orders us to deal with justice.” After seeing the justice of Osman, Byzantine and his nation got the right direction and became Muslim.

Conquests of Osman Ghazi

Conquests of Osman Ghazi
Conquests of Osman Ghazi, Karachahisar, Bilecik, Inhesar, Inegol, YeniSeher, and Marmaracik

Conquest of Karacahisar

Karachahisar Fort was an important fort for Christians that was conquered by Osman Ghazi in 1288 AD, which is also shown in the drama Kurulus Osman. Karachahisar Fort was Osman’s first and biggest success. Osman Ghazi later made this fort his Dar-ul-Khilaf, which later proved beneficial for Sultanate-e-Osmania. After conquering Karachahisar, Osman Ghazi made many changes to that fort, built minarets, and made secret roads for the safety of the soldiers.

It was from here that Osman Ghazi started his conquests and then went on conquering big forts one after the other. Even Osman Ghazi drove the Byzantines out of that area.

Conquest of Bilecik

Osman Ghazi faced many difficulties in conquering the Bilecik fort. Osman Ghazi had sent his nephew, whom we know as Aktimur Bey, to the fort at a young age and asked him to stay in Bilecik. Later, when Osman Ghazi saw the opportunity of Fateh, he took the help of his nephew, who was present in the same fort, and made that fort also the tomb of Byzantine, and Osman Ghazi hoisted his flag on Bilecik.

Conquest of İnhisar’ı

İnhisar’ı Osman conquered very cleverly. Seeing Osman’s mercy, Takfur Kosse, the Byzantine commander, converted to Islam and Takfur Kosse helped Osman Ghazi, Osman was instrumental in conquering İnhisar’ı fort played the part. Tekfur Köse quietly took Osman inside the fort as a Byzantine commander. As soon as Osman Ghazi entered the fort, Osman Ghazi dropped the İnhisar’ı fort on the head of the Byzantines and hoisted the kayi flag on İnhisar’ı fort.

Conquest of İnegöl

After conquering the Bilecik fort, Osman sent his nephew Aktimur to the Inegol fort. Aktimur Bey cleverly conveyed the intelligence of Inegol fort to Osman and attacked Osman Ghazi Inegol as soon as he got the opportunity. The battle of Inegol went on for a long time, and finally, Osman Ghazi entered the fort, conquered the fort, and cut the throat of Nikola, the commander of Inegol Fort, who was Osman Ghazi’s biggest enemy. Osman Ghazi finally conquered the Inegol fort after hard work and many trials. But Osman Ghazi lost his elder brother Gunduz Bey in this fort. Gunduz Bey was martyred in the battle of Inegol.

Conquest of Yeni Saher

Yeni Seher was under Romanus. Romanus was the commander of Yeni Seher, who was desperate to kill Osman. He made a plan to kill Osman. He called Osman to Yeni Seher to kill him, but Osman knew it was a conspiracy. Osman went to Yeni Seher with full preparation, encircled Romanus in his trap, beheaded Romanus, and conquered Yeni Seher. Still, Osman Ghazi lost his sister Ayegil in the victory of Yeni Seher. Ayegil Yeni was martyred in the battle of Yeni Seher.

Conquest of Marmarachik

Olof, the Byzantine commander, was at war with Osman Ghazi. He had laid a trap to trap Osman, but Osman was smarter than he thought. Osman knew from his spies that Olof was laying a trap and Olof was in the Marmarchik fort. Leaving his commander, he went to lay a trap for Osman in the forest, which was his mistake. Osman saw the opportunity, attacked Marmarachik fort, killed Olof’s commander, and hoisted the Kayi flag on Marmarchik.

Marmarchik fort Osman Ghazi had given to Oktem Bey, because of which Turgut Alp got angry, and Turgut separated from Osman, due to which Osman had to face a lot of difficulties. However, after some time, Turgut Alp realized he was wrong, apologized to Osman, and started winning together again.

Rise of the Ottoman Empire

Rise of The Ottoman Empire

Fall of the Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm, and the Osman Beylik’s independence

In 1281 AD, after the death of Ertugrul Ghazi, when Osman became the Chief Leader of his nation, he dealt with great wisdom and helped Sultan Ala-ed-din in the fight against Christians. He accompanied him while conquering a lot of strongly protected cities and fortresses. That’s why he was honored by the Seljuk’s Sultan Ala-ed-din. He was allowed to savor his name and sermon in his suburb cities. In 1299 AD, Osman founded the Ottoman Empire by announcing independence from the Seljuk Empire.

At the end of the 13th century, the Seljuk Empire was breathing its last, and all Muslim empires in the Muslim world, except the Mamlok Empire, were destroyed by the Mongols. But the Mongols were preparing for a final and decisive attack on the Seljuk Empire.

In 1299, the Mongol army invaded the Seljuk territories, and after the Seljuk sultan was martyred, the empire was torn to pieces. And a small empire emerged from the western possessions close to this empire and today we remember this empire as the Ottoman Empire.

Battle of Bapheus

This battle is considered one of the most regular and important battles in Ottoman history, as it was the first direct battle between the Byzantine Emperor’s army and Usman Ghazi. And seeing that the regular Byzantine army had attacked Usman Ghazi, all the tribes of Anatolia came to the aid of Osman Ghazi.

No Ottoman Empire would have if Osman Ghazi did not win this war. It would have been established. Following the news of the defeat of the Seljuk Sultan in 1299, various figures and high officials throughout Anatolia declared their independent and sovereign states. One of which was the Ottoman Empire.
After gaining independence, Sultan Osman I decided to expand his borders and open a front against the Byzantine Empire. First, conquered the city of Azuki and then the fort of Karachahisar.

Then the following year, he went further and conquered the city of Yeni and made it the capital of the Ottoman Empire. Seeing Osman’s growing power, the surrounding Turkish chiefs turned against him. Amir Kerman, in particular, met the Byzantine emperor and offered him an alliance against Osman I, which the emperor immediately accepted.

However, the rest of the chiefs refrained from allying with the Byzantines and did not take up arms against Usman Ghazi. After the conquest of the city of Yeni, Osman Ghazi began preparations for the invasion of Bursa, Nicomedia, and Nicea But the Byzantine emperor, who was watching the situation closely and thought that Osman could be a great threat, with the help of Amir Kerman, started an army and sent an army of ten thousand to fight the Ottomans.

On the other hand, Osman I also started gathering troops. Seeing the regular Byzantine army attacking Osman Ghazi, all the Turkish tribes of Anatolia came to the aid of Osman Ghazi. Osman Ghazi started advancing towards Nicaea with 5000 Turkish soldiers, and finally, on 27 July 1302, the two armies came face to face.

Osman commanded the Turkish army, and the Byzantine army was led by a commander named Josh. The war started with arrows in which the Turkish army achieved better results, and then the two armies clashed. The Turkish soldiers of that time were considered the best soldiers in the world. His swordsmanship and military prowess were second to none in the world. The Turks launched a major attack on the Byzantine army, which broke the Byzantine army. Seeing this, their commander fled and ordered the army to retreat, but it was too late by then.

The Turks surrounded the Byzantine army and killed the majority. This was only the first and greatest victory against the regular army of Osman Ghazi’s captives. Osman Ghazi had never before clashed directly with the captive emperor’s army. Historians recall the battles of Osman Ghazi, almost 20 years after he became chief in 1281, as the border clashes between local Byzantine officials and Osman I. Sometimes Ottoman I and sometimes the Byzantine fortifications would have been conquered But the Battle of Bapheus was the first battle in which Osman Ghazi’s name was first written in Byzantine history.

In his book, the Byzantine historian George Pachymeres writes that it was July 1302 and that the Byzantine forces had suffered a severe defeat at the Battle of Bapheus against an Ottoman leader. The aftermath of the Battle of Bapheus was long overdue. After the victory in this war, the real era of the Ottoman Empire began, and their footsteps were fixed in this region forever.

Byzantine-Mongol convergence attempt

Seeing the victory of Osman Ghazi, the Byzantines made an alliance with the Mongols. And together they planned to attack the Sultanate of Osman Ghazi. On hearing this news, Osman Ghazi sent his son Orhan Ghazi, who was to become the emperor of the Ottoman, to fight against the Mongols and Byzantines. Orhan Ghazi, keeping the trust of his father Osman Ghazi, fought Mongols and Byzantines with such bravery and intelligence and gave such a dangerous defeat that he never deviated towards Osmanio again in his life.

Death of Osman Ghazi

After conquering many cities and forts of Rumi Sultanate, Osman Ghazi moved toward Bursa city. This encirclement lasted for 10 years and so much time passed in this encirclement that the time of Osman Ghazi’s death had come. When Osman was taking his last breath, he called his son Orhan Ghazi and expressed his last wish. Osman Ghazi’s last wish was to be buried in Bursa.

Now the time had come for the examination of Orhan Ghazi to fulfill his father’s last wish. In a city that Osman Ghazi could not conquer for 10 years, he had to conquer Orhan. Then, finally, Orhan Ghazi made such a strategy that Orhan Ghazi conquered Bursa in a few days. And fulfilled the last wish of his father, Osman Ghazi. Osman Ghazi was buried in the city of Bursa itself.

Osman Ghazi Tomb

Tomb of Osman Ghazi
Tumba de Osman I, Bursa, Türkiye

Osman Ghazi’s grave is now present in Bursa, Turkey. Osman Ghazi laid the foundation of the Ottoman Empire to fulfill his father’s wish, Ertugrul Ghazi, and with a noble intention, his wish was that all Muslims and all Com-e-Muslims should gather under one flag.

Sword of Osman Ghazi

Osman Ghazi’s sword was one of the most important swords of the state used during the coronation of the Ottoman sultans for six hundred years. This sword was named after Osman Ghazi. Osman Ghazi’s sword was presented to every newcomer to the Ottoman Sultan at his swearing-in ceremony, and this continued for about six centuries. The practice started when Osman I was girt with the sword of Islam by his mentor and father-in-law Sheikh Edebali. And then at the coronation of every Ottoman sultan, this sword was presented to the new Ottoman sultan. And it was prayed that Allah would create in this new Sultan the qualities of Osman Ghazi.

Since the time of Sultan Muhammad the Conqueror, this enthronement ceremony has been performed in the precincts of the shrine of Hazrat Ayub Ansari. Hazrat Ayub Ansari is a famous Companion of the Prophet who died during the first Muslim invasion of Constantinople in the 7th century.

Although the sword was formally given to the new Ottoman sultan, each new sultan was associated with his or her thirteenth-century ancestors. For centuries, non-Muslims were barred from entering the Hazrat Ayub Ansari Mosque and participating in the coronation ceremony, a ban that lasted until the reign of the autonomous Ottoman Sultan Abdul Hamid II.

The new Ottoman sultan, Mehmet V, who succeeded Sultan Abdul Hamid in 1909, abolished the centuries-old custom and allowed non-Muslims to attend his swearing-in ceremony. The new Ottoman sultan, who came after Mehmet V, not only allowed non-Muslims to attend the event but also allowed the speech to be filmed. And this was the oath-taking ceremony of the Ottoman Sultan which was filmed for the first and last time After the fall of the Ottoman Empire in 1922, this Sword of Osman is held in the Imperial Treasury section of Topkapı Palace.

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People Also Ask?

What was special about Osman I?

Osman Ghazi or Osman I, is always remembered as the Sultan who laid the foundation of the Ottoman Empire.

When did Osman I start the Ottoman Empire?

Osman Ghazi or Osman I, foundation of the Ottoman Empire in 1299 and became the first Sultan of the Ottoman Empire

Where is Ottoman Royal Family now?

Istanbul, where his family had been deported from Turkey after the fall of the Ottoman Empire. But the Royal Family of the Ottoman Empire was recalled to Turkey from Damascus in 1974 and is now in Istanbul.

Who Destroyed the Ottoman Empire?

In the first world war the son of Sultan Majeed, Mehmed V was Sultan. In this war Ottomans fought as an ally of Germany And at last, they lost this war Which resulted in the foundation of the Republic of Turkey by ‘Musfata Kamal‘ But the caliphate continued up till Majeed II And this last caliph was expelled from the country in 1924 which was the end of Ottoman Empire and Islamic Caliphate But at that time many individuals of the Ottoman Family were still alive And if they would have been the next Sultans if the Empire would not have been broken.

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