Indus Valley Civilization
Indus civilization also called Indus valley civilization or Harappa civilization, Early Cities (Harappa Civilization and Its Cities) History of India thousands of years ago Some such evidence from which we get to know about this civilization. It was a matter of time when the paper was not even made, at that time it was written on dry leaves and on bronze plates. The rocks, stones, pillars, and walls found in the excavation, weapons, and Pajaro reveal the culture, living, and people of that time. From the recent important discoveries, we get to know about this history. Archaeologists made important contributions to this discovery. Archaeologist Dayaram Sahni (Mortimer wheeler), Rakhal Das Banerji, (John Marshall) Alexander Cunningham, and others are credited for the discovery made in the year 1920 in the anguish of Harappa and Mohenjodaro and its city. The culture of this civilization is known from the cities found in this discovery and excavation, and how developed and successful this civilization was. This civilization was settled on the banks of the Indus river in 3500 BC. This civilization is also called Bronze Civilization because bronze was found here for the first time. Harappa city was situated on the banks of the Saraswati river spread widely in the plains. which has now dried up. That is why this civilization is also called the Indus Saraswati civilization.
The Harappa Civilization was spread to many other parts along with the Indian areas or parts. Those areas or cities are Sindh, Tuganda of Baluchistan, Punjab, Haryana, Western Uttar Pradesh, Northern Rajasthan, Gujarat, Northern, Maharashtra, important cities of Harappa Mohenjodaro, Harappa, Kalibanga in North Rajasthan, Mehargarh in Baluchistan, Gujarat, Dholavira and Lothal in Gujarat. Come now let us take information about the buildings, roads, drains, etc. of the cities of the Harappa civilization. The cities and buildings built during the time of the Harappa civilization show illustrative construction skills of that time. These cities were divided into two parts. The upper part or part was called the city fort (citadel). The construction of the city fort was in such a way that it was safe at the time of war and it was done by erecting strong walls around the common citizen’s houses. Green roads were important parts, religious buildings, important shops, etc. of this city. Craftsmen, farmers, livestock keepers, etc. lived in the people living in the lower town. The people living in the lower town were afraid of floods, and attacks during the war. Large warehouses have been found in the cities of Harappa, Mohenjodaro, and Lothal. Foodgrains and other types of goods were kept in these warehouses. Large bathrooms of the most special and special shape found in Harappa city. These large bathrooms reflect the engineering skills of that time, the size of this bathroom was 12 meters X 7 meters and the depth was 3 meters. There were stairs on both sides to enter and exit this bathroom. This bathroom was for the big rulers and their special guests. This bathroom used to be in the middle of the rooms of those rulers, which had big long walls around them. There was also a separate arrangement for pouring and removing hot water in these bathrooms. In these, water was poured by a big well which was attached or connected to them. There was also a separate drain connected to them from which water came out.
Town Planning of Indus valley civilization
The houses and streets of the lower cities of the Harappancivilization used to be well organized and straight, the main street was 10 meters wide. There used to be housed on either side of the main street \ these houses were mainly one or two floors. These houses were made of ripe red bricks which had strong walls. The roof was flat and the windows and doors were made of wood. The bathrooms of these houses were on one side of the house, whose drain was connected with the drains of the street. The drain of the street used to be on the side of the street ie on one side and it was covered with bricks or letters so that the street remains clean. Some houses had their own wells. These houses belonged to rich businessmen and upper-class people. Other people who were working-class lived in a one-room house. From some other remains found here, it is known that the people here used to raise animals like dogs, sheep, goats, cows, and bulls. At that time, it is known from some special relics found about the clothes the clothes, such as: Cloth-making equipment Cotton, that is, the cotton-like cloth was woven or made from these tools. It is believed that this work would be done by the women living in the house. Large and long clothes were wrapped around the body. Both men and women used to wear a garland around their neck and a string in their hands. These ornaments were made of conch shells, pearls, precious stones, and gold and silver. The comparison and measurement system was developed in this civilization. These weights are found in different shapes. These rectangular and round are found in different shapes, which were made of attractive stones. The small toys found in the search were for the children On the basis of the information, the seals found from Harappa were made of baked clay, ie terracotta, metals. It is known from various figures that they worshiped the Goddess. From the figures on other found remains, it is known that they worshiped the Hindu deities Pashupati and Shiva. They used to worship sacred trees, animals, etc. This is known from the pictures made on the remains. Pictures have also been found on some seals doing yoga. It is known from this that yoga was also done at that time. The people of the Harappa civilization were also good craftsmen and sculptors. It is known for the discovery of some special sculptures. From small clay toys, vases, pots, utensils, etc., it is known how much their skill was in this art.
The people of Harappa were very skilled and developed in making pottery. They used to make different types of designs and pictures on them. They used to take pictures of snakes, flowers, animals, etc. These utensils were made of red clay and they were black on them. Paintings were made with color. Clay buttons, seals, weapons made of bronze, and various types of pottery are found in the Harappa civilization. Harappa civilization is thousands of years old. This is one of the first cities in the world, the civilization which began to end. Natural calamities such as floods, drought, disease spreading, or the attack of wild animals are considered to be the end of this civilization.