History of Russia | Battles, Timeline & Facts

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History of Russia

Prehistory

History of Russia
History of Russia

History of Russia: Russia is a giant country that reaches eastern Europe and northern Asia. After the breakup of the Soviet Union in December 1991, Russia, once the preeminent republic of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR; usually known as the Soviet Union), became an independent country.

Russia is a land of superlatives. It is by far the world’s largest country, covering about double the area of Canada, the world’s second-largest country. It stretches throughout northern Asia and the eastern third of Europe, spanning 11 time zones and encompassing a diverse range of ecosystems and landforms, including deserts, semiarid steppes, deep woods, and Arctic tundra.

The Volga, Europe’s longest river, and Ladoga, Russia’s largest lake, are both located in Russia. Russia is also home to Baikal, the world’s deepest lake, and the world’s coldest temperature outside of the North and South poles.

Early History

Early East Slavs

Flag of Russia
Flag of Russia

Early History of Russia: The early East Slavs were the people who lived in the area which is now Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine. They began to settle in this area around the 6th century AD. The East Slavs were divided into three groups: the Russian, Ukrainian, and Belarusian.

The first East Slavic state was Rus. It was founded by the Viking chieftain Rurik in 862. Rus’ was a powerful state which controlled much of Eastern Europe. However, it was destroyed by the Mongols in 1240.

After the fall of Rus’, the Russian principalities of Moscow and Novgorod emerged as the leading states in Eastern Europe. In 1480, Ivan III of Moscow conquered Novgorod, becoming the sole ruler of all East Slavs. Under Ivan’s grandson, Ivan IV (also known as “Ivan the Terrible”), Russia became a great power.

In 1721, Peter I proclaimed himself emperor of Russia, and his state became known as the Russian Empire. The Russian Empire reached its peak under Catherine II (also known as “Catherine the Great”). By the end of her reign, Russia controlled much of Europe and Asia.

Kievan Rus’ (882–1283)

Kievan Rus’, also spelled Kyivan Rus’, was a loose federation of East Slavic and Finnic peoples in Europe from the late 9th to the mid-13th century, under the reign of the Varangian Rurik dynasty. The modern nations of Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine all claim Kievan Rus’ as their cultural ancestors, with Belarus and Russia deriving their names from it.

Mongol invasion and vassalage (1223–1480)

Mongol invasion and vassalage
Mongol invasion and vassalage

In 1237, the Mongols invaded Russia, resulting in a period of a vassalage that lasted for more than two centuries. The Mongols were nomadic people from Central Asia who conquered many lands, including China, Persia, and parts of Europe. They first invaded Russia in 1223, but they were driven back by Prince Yuri II of Vladimir.

In 1237, the Mongols returned and conquered the city of Kyiv. They then proceeded to sack the city of Vladimir. The Mongols continued their conquest of Russia, eventually reaching as far west as Poland and Hungary.

The Mongols ruled Russia through a system of vassalage, which was a system in which the conquered people were required to serve the conquerors. In return for their service, the Mongols provided protection from other invaders. The Mongols also allowed the Russians to keep their own laws and customs.

The Mongol invasion had a significant impact on Russian history. It resulted in the death or displacement of millions of people. It also led to the rise of the Russian Orthodox Church and the development of the Russian language.

Grand Duchy of Moscow (1283–1547)

The Grand Duchy of Moscow was a Russian state that existed from the late 13th century to the early 18th century. It was the largest and most powerful state in Russia during that time.

The Grand Duchy of Moscow was founded in 1283 by Prince Yuri II of Vladimir. He united the Russian principalities of Vladimir, Suzdal, and Novgorod into one state. Moscow quickly became the dominant force in Russian politics and culture.

In the 14th century, Moscow annexed the Khanate of Kazan, making it the largest state in Russia. In the 15th century, it conquered the Novgorod Republic and the Khanate of Astrakhan. By the 16th century, Moscow had emerged as the preeminent power in Russia.

Under Ivan III (r. 1462–1505), Moscow became an autocratic state. Ivan IV (r. 1533–1584), also known as “Ivan the Terrible”, expanded the territory of the Grand Duchy even further. He conquered the Khanates of Kazan and Siberia, making Russia a huge empire. During the Time of Troubles (1605–1613), Russia.

Rise of Moscow

Rise of Moscow
Rise of Moscow

The rise of Moscow as a political power in the late medieval period is one of the most fascinating and complex stories in Russian history. It is a story of ambition, intrigue, and betrayal, set against the backdrop of a country that was in constant flux.

The late medieval period was a time of great change for Russia. The Mongol invasion of the 13th century had left the country in disarray, and various rival princes vied for control over its fragmented territory. Into this mix stepped Moscow, a small city-state that was able to take advantage of the situation and rapidly expand its territory.

Moscow’s success was due in large part to the skill of its rulers, who were able to play off rival princes against each other. They also benefited from the fact that Moscow was located on the trade route between Europe and Asia, which made it an important economic hub.

The rise of Moscow culminated in the coronation of its ruler, Ivan III, as the “tsar” (or emperor) of Russia in 1480. This event signaled Moscow’s emergence as the preeminent power in the land, and laid the foundation for the creation of the Russian Empire.

Ivan III, the Great

Ivan III, the Great was the Grand Prince of Moscow from 1462 to 1505. He was one of the most important rulers in Russian history and his reign saw the transformation of Russia from a medieval state into an empire. Ivan’s rule was marked by numerous achievements, including the conquest of the Khanate of Kazan, the unification of the Russian lands, and the building of the Kremlin.

Under Ivan’s rule, Russia emerged as a powerful force on the international stage. His policies greatly expanded Russian territory and influence, and he is often considered one of the founders of the modern Russian state. Ivan III was a skilled diplomat and military leader, and his reign ushered in a golden age for Russia.

Tsardom of Russia (1547–1721)

The Tsardom of Russia, also known as the Tsar’s Domain, was a state that existed in Russia until the Russian Revolution It was preceded by the Grand Duchy of Moscow and was succeeded by the Russian Empire.

The Tsardom of Russia was established when Ivan III, the Grand Prince of Moscow, declared himself the “tsar” of all Rus. This marked the end of the Mongol-Tatar yoke over Russia, and the beginning of Muscovite rule.

Under Ivan III, Russia began to expand its territory. He annexed Novgorod and then proceeded to conquer Livonia, Estonia, and Latvia. By the end of his reign, Russia had become one of the largest states in Europe.

Ivan IV, also known as Ivan the Terrible, continued his father’s policy of expansion. He conquered Kazan, and Astrakhan in. He also annexed parts of Siberia. However, he is best known for his reign of terror, during which he killed or imprisoned many of his opponents.

After Ivan IV’s death in, Russia entered a period of turmoil. There were several pretenders to the throne and multiple inv.

Russian Civil War (1917–1922)

Russian Revolution
Russian Civil War

The Russian Revolution of 1917 was one of the most momentous events of the 20th century. It was a time of great upheaval and change, and the repercussions of the Revolution are still felt today. In this blog section, we’ll explore the causes and effects of the Russian Revolution, and what it meant for both Russia and the world.

Russian Civil War

The Tsardom of Russia, also known as the Tsar’s Domain, was a state that existed in Russia until the Russian Revolution It was preceded by the Grand Duchy of Moscow and was succeeded by the Russian Empire.

The Tsardom of Russia was established when Ivan III, the Grand Prince of Moscow, declared himself the “tsar” of all of Rus. This marked the end of the Mongol-Tatar yoke over Russia and the beginning of Muscovite rule.

Under Ivan III, Russia began to expand its territory. He annexed Novgorod and then proceeded to conquer Livonia, Estonia, and Latvia. By the end of his reign, Russia had become one of the largest states in Europe.

Ivan IV, also known as Ivan the Terrible, continued his father’s policy of expansion. He conquered Kazan, and Astrakhan in. He also annexed parts of Siberia. However, he is best known for his reign of terror, during which he killed or imprisoned many of his opponents.

After Ivan IV’s death in, Russia entered a period of turmoil. There were several pretenders to the throne and multiple inv.

Russian Federation (1991–present)

Flag of Soviet union
Flag of the Soviet Union

The Russian Federation was established in 1991, after the dissolution of the Soviet Union. Russia is the largest country in the world, with a land area of 17.1 million square kilometers. The population of Russia is 144 million people, making it the ninth most populous country in the world.

The Russian economy is the sixth-largest in the world, with a GDP of $1.3 trillion. The main industries in Russia are oil and gas, mining, manufacturing, agriculture, and tourism.

Russia has a long history dating back to the ninth century. The first Russian state was founded in 862 by Prince Rurik. Over the centuries, Russia has been ruled by a number of different empires and regimes, including the Mongol Empire, the Tsarist Empire, and the Soviet Union.

Since 1991, Russia has been a federal republic governed by a president and parliament. The current president of Russia is Vladimir Putin, who has been in power since 2000.

Liberal reforms of the 1990s

In the 1860s, Russia embarked on a series of reforms that would transform the country. These reforms, known as the liberal reforms, were designed to modernize Russia and bring it in line with Western Europe.

The liberal reforms began with the emancipation of the serfs in 1861. This freed more than 23 million people from bondage and gave them the right to own land and property. The emancipation of the serfs was followed by a series of other reforms, including the creation of local self-government, the establishment of trial by jury, and the introduction of civil rights.

These reforms helped to spur economic growth and modernization in Russia. However, they also caused political unrest. The liberals who supported the reforms clashed with conservatives who opposed them. This conflict came to a head in 1917 with the Russian Revolution.

The era of Putin

In the early 2000s, Vladimir Putin was elected President of Russia. Under his leadership, the country has undergone many changes. Putin has worked to improve the economy and reduce crime. He has also made Russia a more powerful force on the global stage.


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