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History of Pakistan (1947–present)

History of Pakistan

History of Pakistan

Pakistan is a country located in southern Asia. The region now straddling the border of present-day Pakistan and Afghanistan is one of the most beautiful regions of the world.

The region has seen the arrival and departure of a number of civilizations, through invasions and migrations: Alexander’s period, the January Uprising of 1857 by the sepoys, the establishment of the British Raj, and all the way through to the Partition of the British Raj in 1947. Pakistan is bordered by the India-administered Kashmir to the east, Afghanistan to the northwest, and the nation of Iran and the whole of Balochistan to the west.

Pakistan Movement

The Pakistan Movement was a political movement in the early 20th century that aimed to create an independent Muslim state in the northern Indian subcontinent. The movement was led by Muslim nationalists such as Muhammad Ali Jinnah and Sir Syed Ahmed Khan. After years of agitation and political maneuvering, the British government finally agreed to the establishment of an independent Pakistan in 1947.

Creation of Pakistan

The Creation of Pakistan

The partition of British India into India and Pakistan was accomplished on August 14-15, 1947. The new border ran through the Muslim-majority areas in the northwest and east of the subcontinent. This resulted in the largest forced migration in world history, with some 15 million Muslims moving from India to Pakistan and about an equal number of Hindus and Sikhs moving from Pakistan to India.

1947–1958: First democratic era

Pakistan’s first democratic era was a period of transition after the country’s independence from British rule in 1947. The transition was marked by political instability and military coups. civilian rule was eventually restored in 1958, but the country remained unstable.

The first democratically elected government was led by Prime Minister Liaquat Ali Khan of the Muslim League. Khan was assassinated in 1951, and his successor, Khawaja Nazimuddin, was ousted in a military coup in 1953.

The next democratically elected government was led by Prime Minister Muhammad Ali Bogra of the Muslim League. Bogra was ousted in another military coup in 1958.

Civilian rule was finally restored in 1958 with the election of President Ayub Khan of the Muslim League. Khan governed Pakistan until his retirement in 1969.

During this period, Pakistan experienced significant economic growth. The country also developed its own nuclear weapons program. However, political instability and military coups continued to plague Pakistan.

1958–1971: first military era

Pakistan’s first military era was marked by political instability and economic insecurity. The country’s resources were drained by successive military campaigns in the Kashmir conflict and the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971. These years also saw a dramatic increase in the size and power of the Pakistani military, as well as a corresponding increase in defense spending.

The first military era came to an end with the assassination of Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto in 1977. This event triggered a series of events that led to the overthrow of the civilian government and the imposition of martial law. The martial law regime was eventually replaced by a civilian government in 1988, but the country continued to be plagued by political turmoil and economic problems.

1958: military rule

Pakistan has a long history of military rule. The country has been governed by the military for more than half of its existence. Military rule began in 1958 when General Ayub Khan took power in a coup. Khan ruled Pakistan for 11 years.

During Khan’s rule, Pakistan made great strides in economic development. However, political freedom was limited and human rights abuses were common.

In 1969, Khan was ousted in a coup by General Yahya Khan. Yahya ruled for just two years before he was forced to resign following the Bangladesh War of Independence.

Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, the leader of the Pakistan Peoples Party (PPP), became president after Yahya’s resignation. Bhutto promised to hold free and fair elections within 90 days. However, he delayed the elections and instead declared martial law.

Bhutto’s rule was marked by political turmoil and economic decline. In 1977, Bhutto was ousted in a coup by General Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq. Zia ruled Pakistan for 11 years.

Zia’s rule was autocratic and repressive. He enforced strict Islamic laws and curtailed civil liberties. However, he is credited with revitalizing.

1962–1969: presidential republic

presidential republic in Pakistan

Pakistan is a presidential republic with a population of over 207 million people. Islam is the official religion of Pakistan and 96.28% of the population is Muslim. Pakistan has a rich history dating back to the 8th century when the region was known as Gandhara. The region was conquered by Alexander the Great in 327 BC and later became part of the Mauryan Empire. Buddhism flourished in Gandhara during this time.

Pakistan became a Muslim country in 711 AD when Arab conquered Sindh. The region was ruled by Muslim dynasties for centuries until the British arrived in 1843. Pakistan was under British rule from 1843 until 1947 when it became an independent country.

Pakistan is located in southern Asia and shares borders with India, Afghanistan, Iran, and China. The capital of Pakistan is Islamabad and the official language is Urdu.

1969–1971: Martial law

The region now straddling the border of present-day Pakistan and Afghanistan is one of the most beautiful regions of the world.

The region has seen the arrival and departure of a number of civilizations, through invasions and migrations: Alexander’s period, the January Uprising of 1857 by the Sepoys, the establishment of the British Raj, and all the way through to the Partition of the British Raj in 1947.

Pakistan is bordered by the India-administered Kashmir to the east, Afghanistan to the northwest, and the nation of Iran and the whole Balochistan province to the west.

1971–1977: Second democratic era

Pakistan’s second democratic era began in 2008 when the country held its first free and fair elections in nearly a decade. The elections were a landmark moment in Pakistan’s history, as they marked the first time that a civilian government had been democratically elected.

Since then, Pakistan has made great strides in consolidating democracy. A new constitution was ratified in 2010, which strengthened the role of parliament and provided for greater provincial autonomy. civilian governments have been elected in 2013 and 2018, and Pakistan is now considered to be one of the most democratic countries in Asia.

Despite these advances, Pakistan faces significant challenges. The country is plagued by corruption, poverty, and militancy. Additionally, relations with neighboring India remain tense, and the two countries have gone to war on several occasions.

Still, Pakistan’s democracy is an important success story in a region where the military rule is common. The country’s progress over the past decade provides hope for continued progress in the future.

1977–1988: Second military era

Pakistan’s second military era began in 1977 when General Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq staged a coup and took over the government. Zia’s regime was characterized by autocratic rule, military repression, and religious extremism.

During his rule, Zia introduced several controversial policies, including the introduction of Islamic law (Sharia). This led to increased religious tensions in Pakistan and a series of sectarian violence.

Zia’s regime was also marked by corruption and economic mismanagement. The country’s economy declined sharply during this period.

Zia’s rule came to an end in 1988 when he was killed in a plane crash. His death ushered in a new period of civilian rule.

1988–1999: Third democratic era (Benazir–Nawaz)

Pakistan’s third democratic era, also known as the Benazir–Nawaz era, was a period of governance in Pakistan that lasted from 1988 to 1999. The era is named after Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto and her successor Nawaz Sharif, who both served two non-consecutive terms as prime minister during this period.

This was a period of economic growth and political stability for Pakistan. However, it was also a time of corruption and nepotism. Many people believe that the country’s current problems began during this era.

The Benazir–Nawaz era came to an end when General Pervez Musharraf took over in a military coup in 1999.

1999–2007: Third military era (Musharraf–Aziz)

Pakistan’s third military era began with the 1999 coup by Pervez Musharraf, who deposed the civilian government of Nawaz Sharif. Musharraf then served as Pakistan’s president from 2001 to 2008.

During Musharraf’s rule, Pakistan saw significant economic growth. However, Musharraf’s rule was also marked by political turmoil and human rights abuses. In 2007, Musharraf declared a state of emergency and suspended the constitution. He resigned from office in 2008 after facing impeachment proceedings.

Pakistan’s third military era came to an end with the election of Asif Ali Zardari in 2008. Zardari was the widower of former Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto, who was assassinated in 2007. Zardari served as president until 2013 when he was succeeded by Mamnoon Hussain.

2008–Present: Fourth democratic era

Pakistan is a country located in southern Asia. The region now straddling the border of present-day Pakistan and Afghanistan is one of the most beautiful regions of the world.

The region has seen the arrival and departure of a number of civilizations, through invasions and migrations: Alexander’s period, the January Uprising of 1857 by the Sepoys, the establishment of the British Raj, and all the way through to the Partition of the British Raj in 1947.

Pakistan is bordered by the India-administered Kashmir to the east, Afghanistan to the northwest, and the nation of Iran and the whole Balochistan province to the west.

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