- Ernest Hemingway | Biography, Nobel Prize, & Death
Ernest Hemingway Summary
Ernest Hemingway wasn’t just an immensely talented author; he was also an icon of 20th-century bullishness and masculinity, a surprisingly sensitive soul, and one of the most beautiful, awful, and intriguing figures in literary history.
Ernest Hemingway’s life may not have been the longest, but Ernest Hemingway filled it with drama, driven by ambition and streaked with blood. “I believe that proper and honest love creates a respite from death. Not being loved or not loved well is all cowardice, which is the same thing.”
Ernest Hemingway Facts
Born: 21 July, 1899
Died: 2 july, 1961
Cause of Death: Suicide
Parents: Clarence Edmonds Hemingway, Grace Hall Hemingway
Wives: Hadley Richardson (1921-1927), Pauline Pfeiffer (1927-1940), Martha Gellhorn (1940-1945), Mary Welsh (1946)
Children: Jack > Patrick > Gloria
Wounds from Childhood and War
Desperation gripped Ernest Hemingway’s mother to have twin children. To feed her fantasies, she often dressed the young Ernest in clothes identical to his sister’s, referring to them as her “sweet Dutch dollies.” Just why little Ernestine, as his mother often referred to him, became so obsessed with masculinity is indeed no surprise.
The outbreak of European conflict in 1914 marked the beginning of Hemingway’s first war. He first volunteered in France for the Red Cross before becoming an ambulance driver for U.S. forces after they entered the war in 1917.
In July 1918, Ernest Hemingway was struck by shrapnel from an Austrian mortar shell while serving in Italy. His experience in Italy would lay the foundations of the plot for his novel A Farewell to Arms, arguably one of his finest works.
The Golden Age of Paris
It isn’t easy to think of Ernest Hemingway without seeing Paris. He was one of the elite writers, artists, musicians, and thinkers who lived in the city during its golden age, a period masterfully captured in Hemingway’s final book, A Moveable Feast. Hemingway and his first wife, Hadley Richardson, soon befriended many local personalities, such as Gertrude Stein, Ezra Pound, Pablo Picasso, and James Joyce. “You’re too self-effacing; it’s not manly.
Declare yourself as the best writer! If you’re a writer, But you’re not, as long I’m around unless you wanna put the gloves on and settle it.” But, in 1927, Hemingway’s marriage ended when Hadley discovered his affair with a fashion reporter, Pauline Pfeiffer. They divorced, and Hemingway remarried the same year.
In 1928, Ernest and Pauline Hemingway moved to Key West, Florida. Papa Hemingway and his mutant cats The Hemingway Home is one of Florida’s most well-known sights and tourist destinations. Pauline’s Uncle Gus purchased their now-legendary house on Whitehead for the Street.
The lovely house, which was also extraordinarily expensive, is still filled with the Hemingways’ personal touches. These include trophies from foreign expeditions, a writing studio, and a unique breed of six-toed mutant tomcats descended from Hemingway’s pets.
The Fight against Fascism
In 1937, Ernest Hemingway traveled to Spain to report on the Spanish Civil War, a devastating conflict between governmental Republicans and Franco’s fascists, for the North American Newspaper Alliance.
Naturally, he couldn’t resist getting involved. Hemingway paid to send ambulances to Spain, produced and narrated a pro-Republican documentary, and is even thought to have fought behind fascist lines.
The war strained Ernest Hemingway’s marriage with Pauline, a devout Catholic, and a fascist sympathizer. He soon fell in love with the woman who would become his next wife: Martha Gellhorn. After a painful and dramatic split with Pauline, Hemingway and Martha married and bought a home together outside Havana.
A Madcap War
For Ernest Hemingway, the Second World War was a little more colorful than the First. He first approached Cuba’s U.S. Ambassador and offered to set up a spy network to monitor Nazi sympathizers on the island. His undercover operatives included servers, fishermen, prostitutes, aristocrats, and priests.
Hemingway then requested a supply of bazookas, hand grenades, machine guns, and radio equipment from the embassy to use his fishing boat for hunting German submarines in the Caribbean.
Hemingway and his “Rough Riders” never quite managed to sink a U-boat, however, and Martha Gellhorn considered the enterprise no more than an excuse for Hemingway and his pals to waste fuel and go drinking. “Not a bad way to start the day, huh?”
Hemingway finally topped it all when he “liberated” the bar of the Paris Ritz days after the Germans had already left by showing up with a jeep and a machine gun, demanding entry, and racking up a tab for 51 dry Martinis.
The Nobel Prize
Having divorced Martha during World War II, Ernest Hemingway returned to Cuba to live with his latest wife, Mary.
In 1954, he received literature’s highest honor: the Nobel Prize. According to The New York Times, he was granted the prize for “his powerful, style-forming mastery of the art of modern narration, as most recently displayed in The Old Man and the Sea.” Six years later, Hemingway and Mary left Cuba and moved to Idaho.
Ernest Hemingway Death
The 1960s saw Ernest Hemingway endure a steep decline in his physical and mental health. Eventually, he checked in to the Mayo Clinic to receive electroshock therapy for his growing paranoia and anxiety. But it didn’t help. Despite further “treatment” at the clinic, Hemingway’s suicidal tendencies worsened considerably, and on July 2nd, 1961, Hemingway shot himself with his favorite shotgun.
At the time of his death, Hemingway had published seven novels, married four women, fought in three wars, and survived two plane crashes. He was buried in Ketchum, Idaho, but his legacy as a man whose life was more significant and stranger than the fiction he wrote has lived on for years afterward. Here’s to you, Papa.
People Also Ask?
How did Ernest Hemingway die?The 1960s saw Ernest Hemingway endure a steep decline in his physical and mental health. Eventually, he checked in to the Mayo Clinic to receive electroshock therapy for his growing paranoia and anxiety. But it didn’t help. Despite further “treatment” at the clinic, Hemingway’s suicidal tendencies worsened considerably, and on July 2nd, 1961, Hemingway shot himself with his favorite shotgun.
How old was Ernest Hemingway when he died?61 year old
Who is Ernest Hemingway?Ernest Hemingway wasn’t just an immensely talented author; he was also an icon of 20th-century bullishness and masculinity, a surprisingly sensitive soul, and one of the most beautiful, awful, and intriguing figures in literary history.
- Billy the Kid | Biography, Death, & Facts
Billy the Kid Summary
Billy the Kid was a notorious criminal of the American Wild West, but his legend often overshadows the complexities of his brief life. When wrapped in the confines of history, a life of crime may seem fashionable, but beyond the glamour, drama, and theatrics of macho tales, there is a sea of despair, vulnerability, and desperation. Billy the Kid was no exception to this rule.
Billy the Kid was not seduced by the allure of the criminal lifestyle but was forced into it by his immediate environment and the events surrounding his innocent childhood. It can be said that crime was chosen For him, not the other way around. Born from a tragedy, he soon became its harbinger. Billy the Kid is symbolic of the history of the American Wild West: a charming, complicated, misunderstood tale that often forgoes ground realities for a simplified yarn. Marred by stereotypical images of John Wayne waving his gun or Clint Eastwood’s silent mannerisms, the weaving narrative of human life is reduced to an anecdote. Here, we will attempt to reject this mythological premise and opt for a grounded perspective.
Born: 23 Nov 1859 New York, U.S
Died: 14 July 1881 (aged21) Fort Sumner, New Mexico Territory
Death Reason: Gunshot Wound
Also Known as: William H. Bonney, Henry McCarty, Brushy Bill
Occupation: Cattle rustler, cowboy and ranch hand, horse thief, gambler, outlaw
Who was Billy the Kid
Billy the kid childhood the teenager who went on to become one of the most iconic criminals in American history had very humble beginnings. He grew up in dismal poverty in the bleak slums of New York City. Born in an Irish family, he was no stranger to social challenges since New York looked down on Irish immigrants in the 1860s and 70s.
At the time, the living conditions in the slums of New York were almost inhumane: crammed families, piles of filth, and no access to sanitation. As an oppressed minority at the time, it is not surprising that many Irish immigrants turned to criminal activities. He was born Henry McCarthy in 1859, and his brother, Joseph, was born in 1963. From this point onward, calamities would take refuge in Henry’s life. In the 1860s, his father Patrick McCarty died or left the family – sources differ.
In the 1860s, his father Patrick McCarty died or left the family – sources differ. His mother up and left New York with her two boys and headed to Indianapolis. After meeting a gentleman named William Henry Harrison Antrim, his mother, Catherine, left Indianapolis and arrived in Kansas, a city ravaged by the American Civil War.
Henry and Joseph settled in with their mother and William in Wichita, Kansas. Henry, the future gunslinger, was a good, quiet, and courteous student who loved to read.
The two siblings would play “Cops and Robbers” and “Cowboys and Indians” in the afternoons with boys from all over town. Little did Henry know that the game would soon bleed into his real life in the most shocking way. When Henry was 14 years old, a doctor diagnosed Catherine with tuberculosis.
Knowing that she had little time left to live, she heeded the doctor’s advice and moved her family south. Getting away from the winters may have prolonged her life, but it also uprooted the lives of her children, who were used to the quiet and pleasant comforts of Wichita. After arriving in Santa Fe, New Mexico, William, and Catherine decided to get married. As his mother’s health dwindled every day, Henry had a lot on his mind.
How did Henry McCarty get the name Billy the kid
The thought of William as his stepfather did not help matters either. Shortly afterward, the family moved to Silver City. As the name suggests, the city witnessed a boom after silver had been discovered in the nearby landscape. The city did not have much in the way of buildings or infrastructure, and this is where the defining moments of Henry’s life would occur.
When Catherine died, William left the boys and went away. In the squalor of the lawless city, the two boys were helpless; Silver City was no place for a couple of orphans. Nevertheless, at different points in their early teenage years, some families took the orphans in, but Henry never managed to stay with one family for very long. Having grown up enough to earn a wage, Henry started working in a hotel.
One day, Billy the Kid was left alone with several pounds of butter. He knew it was fairly expensive and decided to capitalize on the opportunity. He stole the butter, which – ironically – sent him down a very slippery slope. Having stolen the butter, Henry was caught, and the locals called the sheriff to handle the situation. The sheriff could not bring himself to punish the boy, letting him go with only a stern warning. In the years living in Silver City, Henry had befriended a man named Sombrero Jack.
Jack was a thief and might have seen the boy as an easy mark. One day in 1875, Jack called upon the teenager for help. He had robbed a laundry place and wanted a place to hide the things. Henry took the clothes and hid them. Unfortunately, he was caught with the clothes, prompting another run-in with the sheriff. The sheriff was still affectionate towards the boy, but he could not let a criminal roam free. So, he kept the boy in the hallway of the jail cells – keeping him away from hard-and-fast criminals in the process.
The sheriff might have taken a liking to the boy, but the opposite was not true. Henry viewed the sheriff as a threat to his freedom. Still, he remained courteous with the sheriff, as he did with everyone at that point in his life. After two days in captivity, he was fed up. He was a nimble and agile boy and was often ridiculed for his skinny frame.
So, he climbed into the fireplace, shimmied up the chimney, and reached the jailhouse roof. As soon as he jumped on the ground outside the jailhouse, his life changed. He had been bullied, abused, refrained, and overworked, but now his agility had overpowered the devious tactics of his oppressors. He had finally come into his own – he may have a boy, but he was starting to think like a man. By escaping captivity, he earned the nickname “the Kid,” a moniker that would follow him for the rest of his short life.
Billy the Kid in New Mexico
Instead of being the teacher’s pet, who liked to read, he was now a hardened, toughened boy who was willing to please his urges at the behest of others and with no regard for the consequences. Now, he headed southeast, deeper into the territory of Arizona. He was fifteen or sixteen at the time and fell under the wing of Henry Hooker. Hooker was a businessman and an upstanding citizen of the community.
He even knew the most famous lawman in the lore of the Old West: Wyatt Earp. Here, Henry started to steal horses from a nearby army camp with some other friends around the ranch. Stealing horses was not an easy task, but Henry took to it well. One fateful day, he drew his gun after being attacked by a blacksmith in a bar – this was the first time he spilled blood.
The arrest orders showed that the Kid had committed murder and would be hanged for it. He panicked because escaping from the area was not easy. Still, one night, when the jail personnel had gone off to attend a dance, the Kid escaped again. Nobody knows how he managed to pull this off, but when the locals returned from the dance, the shackles were gone, and the cell was empty! He had taken a horse and headed back to Silver City.
The Apache roamed this region, and it was known to be incredibly dangerous to traverse the area without the army’s backing. The Indians caught up with him, threw him to the ground, stole his horse, and left him lying in the desert. Amazingly, the Kid dragged himself to Dona Ana County, New Mexico, where he met an old friend – another outlaw named John Jones – whose mother nursed him back to health. Still, He was on the run and could not stay in one place for too long, so he left and ended up in the town of Apache Tejo in Lincoln County By this time, he had accepted that a simple life was not for him. In Lincoln County, he fell back into the habit of stealing horses with some accomplices.
Billy the Kid had grown in notoriety since his adventures in Mexico City and Arizona. He quickly impressed his new friends, and his fame continued to grow. He stopped using his original name because it was dangerous – even Kid Antrim would not do. So, he decided to use his stepfather’s name – and his mother’s maiden name (Bonney) as his new moniker: William Henry Bonney.
In 1877, Billy the Kid stole some horses from John Henry Tunstall, a wealthy English businessman, and rancher. Tunstall had Billy the Kid arrested and charged with theft; however, as a young bachelor himself, he understood the glint in the teenager’s eyes. He was won over by the boy’s charm and decided to hire him as a cowboy and a gunman on the ranch he and his lawyer, Alexander McSween, owned.
Billy the Kid worked at the ranch for the entire winter. He had begun settling into a routine at Tunstall’s ranch, but his dream of a simple life would be shattered in the coming days. A local group of three Irish Americans (Murphy, Dolan, and Riley) were monopolizing the cattle industry in the area. They wanted to run the Englishman out of business – and out of the territory. Since McSween owed Dolan a debt of $8,000, the three men persuaded the local sheriff, William Brady, to seize Tunstall’s land and cattle as payment – but Tunstall discovered the plan.
Sheriff Brady knew Tunstall wouldn’t let his ranch go without a fight, so he sent a posse formed from known outlaws. When they arrived, John Henry rode out to meet them and, during a brief scuffle, was shot in the chest and head. Thus began the Lincoln County Wars. Deeply bereaved, the Kid went looking for retribution. Sheriff Brady’s posse of outlaws was a great concern for the local justice of the peace, John Wilson, who deputized the Kid and others, calling this new group “The Regulators.” Wilson sent his new group after Sheriff Brady and his outlaw posse. Billy the Kid wasn’t as interested in the Regulators’ other agendas; he was focused on finding Tunstall’s killers and bringing them to justice – and he did so, in his own style.
In early March of 1878, Henry and a few other Regulators located and attempted to capture Frank Banker and William Morton – both accused of murdering Tunstall. As the story goes, both men were killed as they were trying to escape. A few weeks later, on April 1, 1978, the Regulators ambushed and killed Sheriff Brady and his deputy Sheriff, George Hindman. Four days later, the Kid and his group killed two more members of the outlaw posse, and He was wounded in the leg. Participants on both sides were charged with murder, including Henry, who was accused of killing Brady and Hindman.
Aware they must run, McSween and the Regulators left for Lincoln, New Mexico, stationing themselves in McSween’s home and nearby buildings; they knew they were being hunted by a new lawman: George Peppin. Surrounded by sharpshooters, the Regulators fought bravely, but many were killed, including McSween. Peppin’s group set fire to McSween’s home to smoke out the remaining Regulators, and He escaped – but not before shooting and killing McSween’s murderer, Robert Beckwith. With warrants issued for his arrest, He did what he had been doing all his life: he ran.
Alongside him were three other Regulators. Within a few weeks, the group ended up near Mescalero, where a bookkeeper for the Mescalero Indian Agency was killed. Despite conflicting evidence that Constable Atanacio Martinez murdered the bookkeeper, Henry and his Regulators were indicted. Later, all indictments were quashed – except for Billy’s. Later in 1979, Territorial Governor, Lew Wallace, proclaimed amnesty to all participants of the Lincoln County Wars, except for those who had been convicted of – or indicted – for a crime.
Billy the Kid Death
This excluded Billy the Kid from amnesty. Just a few months in February of 1979, he and a friend, Tom, were forced at gunpoint by Jesse Evans to watch as an attorney, Huston Chapman, was shot and burned. Witnesses even testified that he and his friend were only bystanders, but he was –once again –again on the run. In March, he wrote Governor Wallace, claiming his innocence in the Chapman murder and his willingness to provide information about it in exchange for amnesty.
The governor agreed. A meeting was set up, promises were made, and Henry did testify, but those promises were broken when the local district attorney refused to set him free and instead put him in jail. Three months later, He escaped again and ran to Fort Sumner.
He was still only 21 – and have gotten accustomed to a life of crime, he killed a man in a bar scuffle and was caught by the law. After being moved to a jail in Santa Fe, he faced trial for the murder of Sheriff Brady and the other Lincoln Wars victims, where he was found guilty and sentenced to hang on May 13th, 1881. After the hearing, he was moved back to Lincoln, where he escaped once again, killing two deputies in the process. Bounties were placed on the Kid’s head.
Billy the Kid had returned to Fort Sumner, where he was staying with his friend, Pete Maxwell. Sheriff Pat Garrett heard of Billy’s whereabouts and tracked him there. On July 14, 1881, Garrett met with Maxwell at his home to discuss capturing the Kid. Apparently, He entered unexpectedly around midnight, Garrett shot him in the chest, and he was not actually killed, but Pat Garrett – out of friendship – concocted the story so he could go free. Many men have since claimed to be William Bonney; two have been of particular interest. Texas’s Ollie P. Roberts made his claim, asking New Mexico’s governor to pardon him.
The governor dismissed his claim, and Roberts died shortly afterward. The other man of interest, John Miller, hailed from Arizona. His family didn’t support his claims, but in May of 2005, his bones were exhumed (without the state’s permission), and DNA samples were sent to a Dallas lab – but proved nothing conclusive. In 2010, New Mexico’s governor, Bill Richardson, refused to pardon Billy the Kid posthumously for Sheriff Brady’s murder. Thus, over 1300 years after his “death,” William Bonney’s story continues.
People Also Ask?
Why is Billy the Kid so famous?Billy the Kid was a notorious criminal of the American Wild West, but his legend often overshadows the complexities of his brief life. When wrapped in the confines of history, a life of crime may seem fashionable, but beyond the glamour, drama, and theatrics of macho tales, there is a sea of despair, vulnerability, and desperation. Billy the Kid was no exception to this rule.
Why do they call him Billy the Kid?He had finally come into his own – he may have a boy, but he was starting to think like a man. By escaping captivity, he earned the nickname “the Kid,” a moniker that would follow him for the rest of his short life.
Who shot Billy the Kid?Sheriff Pat Garrett heard of Billy the Kid’s whereabouts and tracked him there. On July 14, 1881, Garrett met with Maxwell at his home to discuss capturing the Kid. Apparently, He entered unexpectedly around midnight, Garrett shot him in the chest, and he was not actually killed, but Pat Garrett – out of friendship – concocted the story so he could go free.
- Winston Churchill | Biography, World War II, Quotes, & Facts
You must have heard about British Prime Minister Sir Winston Churchill that he had a moderate & balanced personality. At the same time, he was a successful journalist, author & expert military officer too. His personality was a bunch of countless qualities. Due to his intelligence & sharp strategies, he not only made Britain victorious against Germany in World War 2 but he is considered a founder member of the United Nations.
Full Name: Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill
Born: 30 November 1874, Blenheim, United Kingdom
Died: 24 January 1965, Kensington, London, United Kingdom
Mother: Lady Randolph Churchill
Father: Lord Randolph Churchill
Spouse: Clementine Churchill (m. 1908–1965)
Children: Randolph Churchill, Marigold Churchill, Sarah Churchill, Mary Soames, Diana Churchill
Winston Churchill enters the British Army
In 1893, Winston Churchill joined the cavalry of Britain as a Lieutenant. During that era kept writing as an author about military reporting. In 1898, as a news reporter, he was sent to South Africa for coverage of British military actions. At that moment a dramatic event happened in his life when he was captured by militants. British militants were for spying purposes in armor train that opponents suddenly attacked it. As a result, many of the bogies were dispersed from the railway line.
Experienced Winston Churchill helped many of his soldiers to return to their bodies which were already attached to the train & were still moving. Winston Churchill was arrested & was made prisoner. An interesting fact was that he was arrested by Lewis Botha who later became the prime minister of South Africa. Winston Churchill was present in South Africa as a news reporter not as a military person but still, he was made a prisoner.
South Africans knew about the family background of Winston Churchill so, they made a plan to return Churchill at cost of gaining their own people who were kept as prisoners in Britain. 2nd reason was that Churchill saved a lot of soldiers and helped them, to flee. He was taken to Pretoria after arrest where many prisoners of war were kept already. FLEEING ATTEMPTS Winston Churchill started planning to flee from camp just after his arrival. Earlier he tried to take all prisoners in confidence to flee together collectively. When he realized it was not possible then he took two of his friends in confidence and made attempt to flee.
They kept monitoring the daily routine of the guards of camp. Then he realized that at a particular time guards are not there to keep eye on that 10feet high wall. Escapism was possible at that particular time period. After living 4weeks in prison, on 12th December 1899, Winston Churchill tried to cross that big wall in order to flee. Just after that, his difficult journey began.
Churchill successfully crossed that wall & easily escaped. Now he was only waiting for his other two friends who had to run away along with him. Then he received the signal that the other 2 friends cannot run away from the camp as guards were now monitoring everything sharply. Now, Churchill has to continue his journey all alone. Now difficulties & struggles began for Churchill because location maps, food & compass all remained behind with his other friend who was now not in a position to flee.
Now Churchill had only two ways. Either go on this difficult journey or return back to his jail. Churchill only has 75 ponds along with a few biscuits in his pocket. Churchill decided to travel 300miles on foot.
The presence of opponents & search for him was another continuous fear for him. He used to travel the whole night and hide himself during day time. From Plutonian, he succeeds in reaching the railway line & he entered a running vehicle (full of merchandise). Now Churchill’s life was full of suspense & thriller just like any action movie. Coal was everywhere in that vehicle. He hid in one of the coal boxes. But thirst & hunger tested his nerves. He even witnessed that vulture who was ready to eat Churchill’s body after his death.
JUMP FROM RUNNING TRAIN
Realizing this situation Winston Churchill decided to leave that train. Therefore, he jumped from a running train. The location where he jumped was full of long grasses & swamps all over. Churchill was in difficulty while the British military was facing defeats one after another. Now the whole area was under the custody of opponent forces. Hopes for Churchill were extremely less. He used the strategy of traveling throughout the night and hiding and resting during the daytime for countless days. He even saw many persons from opponent forces who were searching for him all over.
They were searching each and every inch of land. If they would have caught Winston Churchill they would surely killed him. Churchill took aid from rivers for food & water. He used to drink water from rivers along with all those eatables which were flowing in that river.
This event did not continue for so long. Now swamps started all over. The entire location was barren from food & water. He was losing his courage to move further. Churchill had now only 2 options. Either die in despair or take risks in order to get food aid from someone. He knocked on the door of the home situated in a barren area.
The man who opened the door, was an English man from Britain who had started living over there recently. Who not only gave a place to stay but also hide for many days. John Howard was the only British man in the entire area who was running a company in which other British men were working as employees. Churchill remained there for many days. Opponent forces tried to search him everywhere. They even searched him in that location too but luckily Churchill was present in that room which remained unsearched.
Then he planned to run away from here. He was hidden inside a cotton bundle in a running train. He had to travel for the next 6 days on that train. This train was moving towards Delarosa which was bordering an area of Portuguese African territory. On the 3rd day of the journey, the train was stopped and searched. Now Churchill was happy instead of being sad because he listened to soldiers talking in the Portuguese language which made it evident that fear is almost over now.
BEGINNING OF POLITICAL CAREER
After a long tiring journey,, he finally reached the city of Cape Town in South Africa. He stayed there till the end of the war. He wrote many stories and events as an author during that period. His fame & popularity reached Britain even before his arrival in Britain. He returned to Britain when the war was over. He was welcomed as a hero.
The dream that he always used to see about becoming successful, now that dream come true. After returning to Britain he fame was at its peak. So, he decided to enter politics & achieved success one after another,, and became part of the British parliament. In 1940, he became prime minister of Britain. Due to Churchill’s sharp strategies,, he turned out to be a successful Prime Minister of his time. He is also credited for opening such a huge institution “United Nations”