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Mongol Empire | Historical Empire, Asia

The Mongol Empire was one of the largest empires in world history, stretching from the Middle East to southeast Asia. At its height, it controlled an area larger than modern-day France and Germany combined. In this article, we’ll take a look at what made the Mongols so successful, and see if their model can be applied in today’s world.

Mongol Empire History

Mongol Empire
Expansion of the Mongol Empire 1206–1294 superimposed on a modern political map of Eurasia

The Mongol Empire was a vast and powerful empire that spanned over three centuries. Formed in 1206 by Genghis Khan and his Mongol warriors, the empire reached its greatest extent under Kublai Khan (1260-1294). At its height, the Mongol Empire controlled most of Eurasia and parts of North Africa.

The empire collapsed in 1368 after a prolonged power struggle between Kublai Khan’s descendants. However, the legacy of the Mongol Empire continues to be felt today through its significant cultural impact, notably in China and Iran.

Pre-empire context

The Mongol Empire was one of the largest empires in world history. Spanning more than 3 million square kilometers, it reached its height under Kublai Khan and his grandson Genghis Khan. The empire was founded in 1206 by Genghis Khan. Though it began as a nomadic society, the Mongols quickly became one of the most powerful empires in the world. Their military prowess was unmatched, and they conquered most of Eurasia.

Rise of Genghis Khan

main article – genghis khan

Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan, National Palace Museum in Taipei, Taiwan

The Mongol Empire was founded in the late 12th century by Genghis Khan, a nomadic warrior who united the warring tribes of Central Asia into a single powerful empire. Under Genghis Khan’s leadership, the Mongols dramatically expanded their territory, conquering most of Eurasia and forming the largest contiguous empire in history.

The empire reached its apogee under Kublai Khan, who expanded the empire to include China and parts of Europe. However, by the time of Genghis Khan’s death in 1227, the Mongols had been reduced to a minor regional power.

Post-Ögedei power struggles (1241–1251)

Ogedei Khan
Post-Ögedei power struggles (1241–1251)

Güyük’s election was not well received throughout the empire. Güyük was incensed by the Hashshashins, former Mongol allies whose Grand Master Hasan Jalalud-Din had offered his submission to Genghis Khan in 1221. Instead, in Persia, he assassinated the Mongol generals.

Güyük chose his best friend’s father Eljigidei as the main commander of the armies in Persia, tasked with both decreasing Nizari Ismaili strongholds and conquering the Abbasids in Iran Iraq, the heart of the Islamic world.

When Temüge, Genghis Khan’s younger brother, sought to usurp the throne, Güyük traveled to the Karakorum to secure his position. Töregene held a kurultai in 1246, and Batu consented to send his brothers and generals.

Güyük was sick and alcoholic at this point, but his campaigns in Manchuria and Europe had given him the status of a great khan. He was duly elected at a ceremony attended by Mongols and foreign dignitaries from both within and outside the empire, including vassal chiefs, representatives from Rome, and other entities that came to pay their respects and conduct diplomacy at the kurultai.

Güyük took attempts to eradicate corruption, declaring that he would follow his father’s gender’s policies rather than Töregene’s. Except for governor Arghun the Elder, he punished Töregene’s allies. To emphasize his newly given powers, he supplanted young Qara Hülgü, the khan of the Chagatai Khanate, with his beloved relative Yesü Möngke.

Flag of Mongol Empire
Flag of Mongol Empire

He reinstalled his father’s officials and surrounded himself with Uyghur, Naiman, and Central Asian officials, preferring Han Chinese commanders who had assisted his father in conquering Northern China. He kept military operations in Korea going, moved into Song China in the south and Iraq in the west, and ordered a census of the entire empire. Güyük also divided the Sultanate of Rum between Izz-ad-Din Kaykawus and Rukn ad-Din Kilij Arslan, though Kaykawus disagreed with this decision.

Güyük’s election was not well received throughout the empire. Güyük was incensed by the Hashshashins, former Mongol allies whose Grand Master Hasan Jalalud-Din had offered his submission to Genghis Khan in 1221. Instead, in Persia, he assassinated the Mongol generals. Güyük chose his best friend’s father Eljigidei as the main commander of the armies in Persia, tasked with both decreasing Nizari Ismaili strongholds and conquering the Abbasids in Iran and Iraq, the heart of the Islamic world.

Death of Güyük (1248)

Güyük was also a capable military leader. In 1236, he led a successful campaign against the Jin Dynasty. This campaign helped to restore Mongol control over northern China.

Ultimately, Güyük’s violent tendencies led to his downfall. He was assassinated by a group of trusted ministers in 1241.

Rule of Möngke Khan (1251–1259)

The rule of Möngke Khan (–1241) was one of the most successful periods in the history of the Mongol Empire. During his rule, Möngke Khan conquered most of northern China and large parts of eastern Europe. He also expanded the Mongol Empire into Central Asia and southern Siberia.

Under Möngke Khan, the Mongol Empire became a powerful force in international politics. His successors continued to expand the empire until it eventually fell to the armies of Kublai Khan in 1259.

Death of Möngke Khan (1259)

Möngke Khan

The death of Möngke Khan in 1259 marked the end of the Mongol Empire.

Möngke Khan was the fifth and last Great Khan of the Mongol Empire. He ruled from 1241 to 1259, and during his reign, the empire reached its greatest extent.

Möngke Khan was a capable leader who was able to unite the various Mongol tribes under one banner. He also strengthened Mongolia’s military might by expanding the army and by improving the infrastructure of the capital city, Karakorum.

However, Möngke Khan’s greatest achievement was his efforts to solidify Mongol rule over all of Central Asia. He conquered vast territories, including modern-day Iran, Afghanistan, and parts of Russia and China.

In 1259, Möngke Khan died at the age of 65 after a long and successful reign. He was buried in a mausoleum near the Karakorum, where his remains still sit today.

Dispute over succession

The empire reached its height under Kublai Khan and his sons, who ruled from 1260 to 1368 AD. However, the empire began to decline after the death of Kublai Khan in 1294 AD, and it eventually fell to the Ming Dynasty in 1368 AD. There was a dispute over succession after Kublai Khan’s death, and this ultimately led to the downfall of the Mongol Empire.

Mongolian Civil War

In Mongolia, the military is a key part of society. The Mongolian army is one of the largest in the world and has a proud history. However, over the past few years, there has been a civil war going on.

Mongolian Civil War

The war started when the current government wanted to change the way things were done. They wanted to make the army less important and more focused on civilian affairs. The older members of the military didn’t like this idea and they fought back.

Now, there is violence everywhere you look in Mongolia. People are being killed, kidnapped, and displaced in huge numbers. The UN estimates that over 2 million people have been affected by the conflict and it’s only going to get worse.

If you want to help those affected by the war, there are several ways you can do so. You can donate money to organizations that are helping with relief efforts, or you can volunteer your time to help with humanitarian work. Whatever you do, please keep the victims of this war in your thoughts and prayers.

Campaigns of Kublai Khan (1264–1294)

Kublai Khan was the founder of the Mongol Empire and one of the most powerful leaders in history.

Kublai Khan was born in 1215 in what is now Mongolia. He began his career as a military commander and soon became one of the most powerful leaders in China. In 1260, Kublai Khan led an army into battle against the Song Dynasty and emerged victorious.

Kublai Khan then began to expand his empire by conquering new territories. By 1279, he had established the Mongol Empire, which stretched from China to Europe and from Siberia to North Africa.

Kublai Khan was a remarkably successful leader. He built an empire that spanned more than 4,000 miles and ruled over a population of over 20 million people. His campaigns were marked by violence and bloodshed, but he managed to create one of the largest empires in history.

Military organization

One of the most important aspects of the Mongol military organization was the use of cavalry. The Mongols were experts at using cavalry to devastating effect, and their cavalry troops were some of the best in the world. Cavalry troops were extremely mobile, which made them very difficult to defeat in pitched battles. In addition, the Mongols were also very skilled in using siege engines, which allowed them to take cities by force without having to fight pitched battles.

Overall, the Mongol military organization was incredibly effective and successfully defended their empire against many challenges. Thanks in part to their military prowess, the Mongol Empire remained one of the most powerful empires in history for centuries.


The Mongol Empire spanned over four centuries, from 1206 to 1455, and at its height, it controlled a territory that extended from China to Europe and from Hungary to the Middle East. The Mongols were nomadic people who originated in central Asia and were originally known as the Borjigin clan. In 1206, Genghis Khan led a group of warriors into central Asia, defeated the Tang dynasty, and began his conquest of Asia.

By 1260, he had unified all of Mongolia and established the Mongol Empire. The Mongol Empire was incredibly efficient in terms of military expansion; within 40 years, they had conquered most of Eurasia. In addition to their military prowess, the Mongols also had a highly developed society. They had a well-developed legal system that allowed for civil liberties and free speech, as well as an effective government that managed the empire efficiently.

The Mongols were also very tolerant of other cultures; they allowed religious freedom and invited many different groups into their empire. Overall, the Mongol Empire was an impressive society that was responsible for many significant achievements in history.

Fall of the Mongol Empire

Fall of Mongol Empire

The Mongol Empire was a vast and powerful empire that stretched from China to Central Europe. It was ruled by the Mongolian people, a nomadic people who spoke a Turkic language. The empire was founded in 1206 by Genghis Khan, and at its height, it covered an area of more than 25 million square kilometers. However, the empire began to decline in the late 13th century, and by the 14th century, it had collapsed completely.

British Empire Flag

British Empire | History, Flag, Rise & Fall

History of the British Empire

An anachronous map of the British Empire.

The British Empire was once the largest empire in the world, ruling over a quarter of the globe’s land and people. But what led to its decline? In this article, we’ll explore the reasons behind the fall of the British Empire.

Origins (1497–1583)

The British Empire began with the union of England and Wales in 1536. This was followed by the union of England and Scotland in 1707, which created the Kingdom of Great Britain. The British Empire began to take shape during the 18th century when Britain started to expand its colonies in North America, the Caribbean, and India.

During the 19th century, the British Empire reached its peak. It included colonies in North America, Africa, Asia, Australasia, and the Caribbean. At its peak, the British Empire was the largest empire in history.

The British Empire began to decline after World War I. This was partly due to the rise of new rival empires, such as the United States and the Soviet Union. The British Empire also lost many of its colonies during this time.

This was largely due to economic problems and increasing opposition from within the empire itself. The last remnants of the empire were dismantled in 1997 when Hong Kong was returned to China.

English overseas possessions (1583–1707)

All English overseas possessions in 1700, shortly before the Acts of Union of 1707
All English overseas possessions in 1700, shortly before the Acts of Union of 1707

The English overseas possessions, also known as the British Empire, were a group of colonies, protectorates, and other territories controlled by the United Kingdom from the 16th century onwards.

The English first began to establish overseas colonies in North America in the early 1600s. These colonies initially served as trading posts and bases for English fishing fleets. However, they soon began to be seen as potential sources of wealth and power.

In the 18th century, the British Empire reached its height. The British controlled a large portion of the world, including North America, India, Australia, and New Zealand. The British also had a number of African colonies.

This was due to a number of factors, including economic problems at home, competition from other European powers, and rising nationalist sentiment in the colonies. Most of the colonies became independent nations. However, some territories, such as Hong Kong and Gibraltar, remain under British control today.

“First” British Empire (1707–1783)

British Empire Flag
British Empire Flag

The first British Empire was the largest and most powerful empire in world history.

The British Empire was founded in the early 17th century. At its peak, the British Empire covered more than one-third of the world’s land area and had a population of over 500 million people.

The British Empire was characterized by its military might and its ability to control global trade. The British Empire was also responsible for many significant cultural achievements, including the development of democracy and the English language.

Rise of the “Second” British Empire (1783–1815)

The “First” British Empire was a global superpower that dominated the world for over two centuries. However, the “Second” British Empire would eclipse this earlier empire in power and influence. This second empire would span over 80 different countries and stretch from Europe to Asia.

What made the “Second” British Empire so powerful? In part, it was due to the skills and resources of the British people. They were able to build an empire from scratch, using nothing but their own strength and determination.

Additionally, the British Empire was able to maintain its power through a combination of military might, economic prowess, and diplomatic savvy. They were able to conquer new territories, keep them under control, and extract wealth from the people living in these lands.

Ultimately, the “Second” British Empire was a testimony to the strength and power of the British people. They were able to build an empire that was both large and powerful and would remain one of the leading powers in world politics for over two centuries.

Britain’s imperial century (1815–1914)

The British Empire was founded on the principles of free trade and liberty. The British government wanted to spread these values around the world, and they did this by establishing colonies in far-off lands.

The British Empire was very successful in its goal of spreading liberty and free trade. In fact, it is estimated that the British Empire helped to reduce global poverty by almost half.

The British Empire also played a major role in shaping modern-day Europe and Asia. For example, the British Empire helped to create the modern-day European Union. Additionally, it played a significant role in developing independent countries in Asia, such as Japan and India.

Today, the legacy of the British Empire remains alive and well. Many former colonies have become successful democracies, thanks largely to the influence of the British Empire.

East India Company rule and the British Raj in India

East India Company (British Raj in India)
East India Company (British Raj in India)

The East India Company was a British business enterprise that operated in the Indian subcontinent from 1600 to 1858. The company achieved its greatest wealth and power during its rule over Bengal and Bihar, two important regions of the subcontinent.

Under the company’s rule, India saw enormous economic growth, leading to increased demands for British goods and services in the region. However, the company’s policies also resulted in widespread exploitation of Indian laborers and resulted in an enduring legacy of racism and discrimination against Indians.

World wars (1914–1945)

World War

The British Empire began with the colonization of North America by the British in the late seventeenth century. Over the next several decades, the British expanded their territory into Canada, Australia, and New Zealand.

The British Empire reached its peak in the early twentieth century. At its height, the British Empire covered over three continents and had a population of over 350 million people.

The decline of the British Empire began with World War I. The war resulted in widespread damage to Britain’s economy and resources, which weakened the empire. The second major event that led to the decline of the empire was World War II. This war resulted in large numbers of casualties and destruction, which further diminished Britain’s resources and ability to maintain its empire. Today, the British Empire is no longer a significant player on the world stage.

Fall of British Empire (1945–1997)

Fall of British Empire

The United Kingdom experienced a domestic syndicalist revolution as well as the collapse of its foreign colonial empire, which was the largest in the globe at the time, in the years 1924-1925, less than five years after the Treaty of Versailles ended World War I.

Historiographers and political scientists all across the world have researched the fall of the British Empire. The empire’s surviving constituent members have little to show for their efforts to recapture their nation, at least as long as the Union of Britain survives.

Ottoman Empire Flag

Ottoman Empire | Achievements, Capital, History, & Map

Ottoman Empire History

Ottoman Empire ruled over the three continents for more than 600 years. This includes Bulgaria, Greece, Hungry, Jordan, Lebanon, Israel, Palestine, Macedonia, Romania, Syria, Arab & many countries from North Africa. At its peak, the area of this empire was around 1.8 million square kilometers in this time total of 36 Sultans ruled this Empire.

The first four Caliphates (Khulfa Rashdun), Muslims had many caliphates Which belongs to firstly Banu Ummaya & then secondly to Banu Abbass But as time passed their influence weakened & they became History. Afterward, the Seljuks laid the foundation of their Seljuk empire in the areas around Persia. Which was considered to be a very Powerful Empire. But as the saying goes, every rise is a fall. The Seljuk Empire was torn to pieces but part of it survived in the form of the Sultanate of Rome.

Rise and Fall of the Ottoman Empire

In the 13th century, the Mongols entered this empire which was already faltering. The result of the Mongol invasion was that different tribes in this kingdom declared their own independent governments in their respective regions. One of these tribes was the tribe of Osman Ghazi. At that time, Osman was ruling a very small area.

Rise of The Ottoman Empire
The dissolution of the Ottoman Empire, 1807–1924

However, he was not called a king or a sultan at that time. Instead, he was called “Bey :, which means in English” Lord “. But Osman had dreamed of finding a great empire and he had already received the prophecies So, Osman Ghazi succeeded in laying the foundation of his empire At the same time, he started conquering the surrounding areas He was succeeded by his son Orhan ghazi who continued to spread the empire.

Orhan married a Byzantine princess, Thorodora Along with that, one of Europe’s most important cities, Gallipoli, was also conquered. Orhan Ghazi was successful in extending his Empire up to Europe After the death of Orhan Ghazi, his son Murad I spread the empire further into Europe. And conquered many important European regions But Murad I got Martyred in the Battle of Kosovo.

The Ottoman Empire in 1683
The Ottoman Empire in 1683

Then his son Beyazid I took his place Beyazid tried many times to conquer Constantinople, the capital of the Byzantine Empire, And later got Martyred in a battle near Ankara But after his martyrdom, a civil war broke out among his sons At last Mehmed I was successful in sitting on the t Muhammad I continued to reunite the Sultanate again And after that, his son Murad II continued to do so After the Murad II, his son Muhammad II ascended the throne And he did what no sultan could do before He intended to conquer the Constantinople City and in 1453 he conquered this City.

This city was then made the new capital of the Ottoman Empire because Muhammad II was successful in conquering a very important Byzantine city On the basis of this conquest, he was given the title “Mehmed the Conqueror After him his son Bayezid II succeeded him Bayezid got really famous for one thing That he gave shelter to the Jews who were deported from Spain.

After that, such a person became the ruler of the Empire Who expanded the Empire to Asia, Africa, and the Regions of Arabia He was the son of Bayezid named “Selim I” He expanded the Empire to Syria, Arabia, Mesopotamia, and Egypt.

The power of the Abbasid Caliph was exhausted in Egypt Selim I took the title of “Caliph” from the Abbasid’s And then Selim I became the first Ottoman Caliph And the first one who was not Arab Selim’s Successor was “Sultan Suleiman” or Suleman the Magnificent “

He was famous for his justice and also for his Hostility against the Habsburg family in Germany This Sultan fell in love with his slave-girl whos named is Hurrem Sultan Who later became the Queen of the Ottoman Empire Sultan abolished all the traditions and got married to Hurrem Who later appeared to be very Powerful lady This Sultan was also famous for killing his own Son Mustafa Because he was thinking that his son was planning to overthrow his government?

In Suleiman Reign, The Empire was at its Peak and was expanded on Three continents After Suleiman I, Salim II took the charge as Sultan was the son of Hurrem While the Sultan’s daughter married a famous Ottoman Wazir named Rustam After Selim II the next Sultan was Murad III.

In his period Ottomans were ruling many lands of Asia, Europe, and Africa But at the same time this period was the turning point for ottomans The next important Sultan was Ahmed I Who built the famous “Sultan Ahmed Mosque” of Turkey Which is also known as Blue Mosque.

At this point we can see that the transfer of Power was very easy from Father to Son The reason was, after Sultan’s death, all his sons would fight and there would be a civil war The most Powerful Son would kill all his brothers, And took the charge as sultan This was the reason that Ottoman Family was not too big at any time As Sultan Ahmed was young and at that time he had no son so he ended this tradition.

Fall of Ottoman Empire

Fall of Ottoman Empire

In this reign, for the first time, an Ottoman Woman Kosem Sultan became the most powerful woman who took many important decisions for the Empire Sultan Ahmed I died at a young age and he was succeeded by his brother Mustafa I.

In the period it feels like the old tradition of killing own brothers why that tradition was so important for the Empire As that rule was abandoned so Ahmed’s Son Osman revolted against Mustafa He dethrones him and announce himself as Sultan But after some time, Osman was killed by the janissaries, and Mustafa I was again chosen as Sultan After Mustafa, two more sons of Sultan Ahmed took the throne respectively Firstly,

Murad IV took the throne at that time was under aged So Kosem Sultan was talking all the decisions for the Empire And she used to issue orders behind a curtain But When Murad got young still Kosem was taking all decisions and sitting on the throne indirectly After Murad,

his brother Ibrahim succeeded him Who was mentally unstable and because of this he was proved to be incapable Ibrahim turned against Kosem and Kosem killed him Ibrahim was succeeded by his youngest son Mehmed IV But he was also depending on Kosem for all decisions Sultan’s mother did not tolerate this, so she killed Kosem At that time there were many reasons for which Ottoman Empire was declining.

The Ottoman Army was losing many wars and hence the Ottoman Lands Afterwards, many grandsons of Ahmed I came to rule most of them were incapable and do not know how to Govern So let us go to the time of Mehmed II who changed many rules & regulations of the Empire Even though he changed the clothes of the Sultan and government officials.

During this time, the Ottomans have divided into two directions One direction was of Majeed I, and the other was of Abdul Aziz In the first world war the son of Sultan Majeed, Mehmed V was Sultan.

In this war Ottomans fought as an ally of Germany And at last, they lost this war Which resulted in the foundation of the Republic of Turkey by ‘Musfata Kamal‘ But the caliphate continued up till Majeed II And this last caliph was expelled from the country in 1924 which was the end of Ottoman Empire and Islamic Caliphate But at that time many individuals of the Ottoman Family were still alive And if they would have been the next Sultans if the Empire would not have been broken.

Currently, this family is known as “Osman oglu”, after being expelled from Tuki, they live in different parts of the world. Initially, he was banned from entering Turkey, which was later removed. The current head of the family is “Usman Ali Dunder” who was born in 1930. Said goodbye to this world on 8 January 2021 in Damascus, Syria

The Abbasid caliphate

The Abbasid caliphate: Period (750–1258)

The Abbasid caliphate

The Abbasid caliphate
Abbasid caliphate in the 9th century The Abbasid caliphate in the 9th century.

The Abbasid caliphate was the second of the Muslim empire’s two great dynasties. In 750 CE, it removed the Umayyad caliphate and established the Abbasid caliphate, which ruled until 1258, when it was destroyed by the Mongol invasion.

The name is derived from al-Abbs (died c. 653) of the Hashemite clan of the Quraysh tribe in Mecca, the Prophet Muhammad’s uncle. From around 718, members of his family worked to wrest control of the empire from the Umayyads and gained widespread support, particularly among Shii Arabs and Persians in Khorsn, through effective propaganda. Under the leadership of Ab Muslim, an open uprising in 747 resulted in the defeat of Marwan II, the last Umayyad caliph, at the Battle of the Great Zab River (750) in Mesopotamia and the proclamation of Ab al-Abbs al-Saff, the first Abbasid caliph.

The caliphate entered a new era under the Abbasids. Instead of focusing on the West, as the Umayyads had done, the caliphate now turned eastward, including North Africa, the Mediterranean, and southern Europe. The capital was relocated to Baghdad, and the events in Persia and Transoxania were constantly monitored.

The caliphate was not coterminous with Islam for the first time. Local dynasties claimed caliphal status in Egypt, North Africa, Spain, and other places. With the rise of the Abbasids, the empire’s power base expanded internationally, emphasizing participation in the community of believers over Arab identity. Because the Abbasids received so much support from Persian converts, it was only natural for them to adopt much of the Persian (Sasanian) governing tradition. The Abbasids also acknowledged openly the embryonic Islamic law and professed to base their reign on the faith of Islam, thanks to the support of pious Muslims.

Abbasid Caliphate Collapse

Abbasid Caliphate Collapse

On the 9th of August, 833 CE, Al-Ma’mun died. Usually, with someone like him, a powerful and stable ruler, you’d expect his son to succeed him. His son was indeed a great military commander. He had the competency but he didn’t succeed Al-Mamun. Instead, Al-Mamun was succeeded by his brother, who came to be known as Al-Mu’tasim. There was one reason behind this, the Turkic Mercenaries. During Al-Mamun’s reign, Al-Mu’tasim had been in control of a private army of Turkic nomads from the Eurasian Steppes.

Al-Mamun had used them in various military campaigns. One of the biggest advantages that the mercenaries had was that they were loyal to gold so, they could tip the balance of power in the empire in the Caliph’s favor.

The caliph didn’t have to rely on his vassals anymore. It was because of this force that Al-Mu’tasim took control of the empire after his brother’s death. This probably looked like a good idea at the time. A similar thing has been tried throughout history and it has worked exactly ZERO times because those mercenaries usually come to the realization that the emperor needs the mercenaries MORE than the mercenaries need the emperor!

The Turks started taking over the establishment. This broke up into many conflicts with the older Abbasid Bureaucracy and Al-Mu’tasim even founded a new city, Sammara, and took his Turkic establishment there. Turkic influence kept growing even after Al-Mu’tasim’s death in 842CE. Al-Mutawakkil tried to get rid of them. He even had two of the most powerful Turkic generals arrested but the Turks, along with his son who was angry about not being the heir apparent, plotted his assassination and eventually killed him in 861 CE.

This was effectively the end of Abbasid power. From then on, all the Abbasid caliphs were puppets of one Turkic General or the other. This period is known as the Anarchy at Samarra. Eventually, Al-Mutawakkil’s grandson did move the capital back to Baghdad but it didn’t change much. Cancer that Al-Mu’tasim had exposed the caliphate to had completely taken over all aspects of the empire. A position of Amir ul Umara or Commander-in-Chief was established for the Turks.

The Abbasids continued to lose territory. They lost all of Arabia which broke up into various tribal entities. They lost Egypt which was taken by the Tulunids, their former vassals. Their clients Taharid in Persia were overthrown by the Saffarids who even threatened Baghdad itself. Syria broke up into an independent entity early on but was later cannibalized by the Egyptian Tulunids. The Abbasid empire had shrunk to a quarter of its size within 50 years.

There was a brief period of recovery from 892 CE till around 904 CE when managed to bring quite a bit of former Abbasid land back into their control, however, the empire was internally plagued by the same issues. Discontent among the local dynasties was growing. During the next forty years, the Amir ul Umara kept installing and deposing caliphs, Abbasids kept losing and gaining territory, and instability was at its worst.

The Caliphate even alternated twice between the same two caliphs for a while. Former Abbasid caliphs that paid lip service to the Abbasids kept growing in control. Eventually, in 945 CE, a dynasty from Daylam defeat the Abbasid army under the command of Tuzun, the Amir ul Umara, and marched on Baghdad. For the first time in around three hundred years, the caliph was a vassal of another ruler. The Buyids replaced the Turkic as the puppet masters.

They became the protectors or Sultan of the Caliphate. The Caliph usually kept control over the capital city of Baghdad. This was usually done with the help of a certain group of ruffians called the Ayyarun. These were a class of warriors that served as local gangs, taking advantage of the increased instability due to the Shia-Sunni tensions.

These Shia-Sunni tensions had been fueled by the rise of the Fatimids in Egypt and North Africa. By 970 CE, they had taken over Egypt, making Cairo their capital. A lot of people in the Abbasid realm had sympathies for the Shias. Also, the Buyids, the “protectors” of the caliph were Shia themselves. At this point, the Shias weren’t exactly an entirely different sect as it is now, it was mostly just a political division.

The faith systems themselves weren’t very different. It would’ve been nothing out of the usual except the Fatimids also called themselves Caliphs, the rightful ones since Shias believe the Caliphate should’ve stayed in Ali’s descendants and the Fatimids claimed descent from Ali and his wife Fatima, Muhammad’s daughter, from whom they got their name.

The Shia caliphate was doing great at a time the Sunni one was in decline so, naturally, a lot of people were starting to align their sympathies with the Shia Caliph. So, the Abbasid caliph, Al-Qadir published The Baghdad Manifesto. It was basically like a medieval Birther movement.

The Caliph got many “genealogists” and scholars to “prove” that the Fatimids were indeed not Fatima’s descendants but rather, in a shocking twist, were descendants of a Jew, which were considered an enemy of Islam itself. Meanwhile, the Fatimids were like, “I’m sorry, I can’t hear you over the sound of my armies conquering Syria and Palestine”.

Meanwhile, in the year 1040 CE, an Oghuz Turkic clan from the Eurasian Steppes had just defeated the Ghaznavids in the Battle of Dandanaqan, clearing their way to all of Persia. 1055CE, Tughril Bey captured Baghdad from the Buyids, some say on the request of the Abbasid Caliph. Tughril Bey’s brother, Chagrin Bey married his daughter, Khatun Khadija, to the caliph. This was done in the hopes that the Caliphate and the Sultanate would merge through their son. This didn’t work out, another Sultan later tried the same with his daughter but that didn’t really work either.

Things were pretty good over the next forty years, the caliph ran the religion and the Seljuqs ran the empire. It was a good partnership, except, the Seljuqs had started kicking the Byzantine gates. In 1071 CE, Alp Arslan defeated the Byzantines with basically no effort at the Battle of Manzikert. The Byzantines couldn’t resist the Turks anymore. Turkic tribes started settling in the previously Byzantine region of Anatolia.

Byzantine Emperor Alexios called on the Catholic church to help curb the Muslim expansion and in 1095 CE, Pope Urban in the Council of Clermont declared a Crusade. Deus Vult! God wills it. As you might expect the Muslim pope, the Caliph suddenly had a relevance boost when he helped rally the Sunnis to the cause of defending the holy land, well, more Anatolia than the Holy Land.

In 1099CE, Jerusalem fell to the Crusaders. Over the next fifty years, the relationship between the Seljuqs and the Abbasids fell apart because the Sultans thought the Abbasids were interfering too much in matters of the state. The empire itself wasn’t stable. Many princes and other Turkic dynasties around the empire were contending for the throne. It was time for the Abbasids to take advantage of this.

In 1125 CE, Al-Mustarshid was powerful enough to build an army and rebel, however, his rebellion didn’t go far. They met the Seljuqs right outside Baghdad and were defeated. Al-Mustarshid was put under house arrest. His son, similarly, was hostile to the Seljuqs, so much so that they deposed him and he fled to Isfahan and was killed by the Assassins on the way there.

Finally, in 1157, al-Muqtafi once again declared independence. This time, he was able to fight back and defend his realm, freeing it from the Seljuqs. After 200 years of the occupancy of foreign powers, the Abbasids were independent. Over the next fifty years, the Abbasid Caliphate managed to secure most of Iraq.

However, the worst threat the caliphate had ever faced was coming. A force unlike any the world had ever seen, took over most of Eurasia. By 1227 CE, the year of Genghis Khan or Chinggis Khan’s death, the Mongols were standing at the gates of Persia. They had taken over most of China, the Eurasian Steppes, Khorasan, and even Persia. They had defeated the once mighty Khwarezmid Empire that had filled the vacuum left behind by the Seljuqs.

fall of abbasid caliphate

In 1258 CE, the grandson of Genghis Khan, Hulagu Khan laid siege to Baghdad, the heartland of the Islamic Golden Age. Hulagu Khan had demanded submission from the Caliph, which the caliph ill-advisedly refused. Hulagu sought to make an example out of the Caliph for this insolence. According to some sources, Al-Musta’sim didn’t think it was an invasion but rather just another raiding party, many of which the Caliphate had pushed back. By January 29th, the siege of Baghdad began.

The caliph, reportedly, neglected to put a proper force together or reinforce his city’s defenses. According to some sources, Hulagu Khan asked for all of the city’s elite, the aristocracy, the scholars and engineers, and the bureaucracy, of them to come outside the city for negotiations. As around 3000 of the city’s elites went for negotiations, they were all murdered. On February 10th, the city surrendered.

The Mongols went on to massacre the city and its population. Some 200,000 to 800,000 or even a million people were killed. The stench of the dead bodies was so bad that Hulagu didn’t stay in the city for long. Survivors said that the waters of the Tigris ran black with ink from the enormous quantities of books flung into the river and red from the blood of the scientists and philosophers killed.

The city was so thoroughly destroyed that even today, no signs of the core city, the circular city of peace, have been found. The caliph was killed, the Mongols feared spilling the blood of royalty so, he was rolled around in a carpet and trampled by horses. The end of the Abbasids in Baghdad. However, one of the Abbasid princes was given refuge by the Egyptians Mamluks. He and his descendants held the title of the Caliph, only in name, for the three hundred years.

In 1517 CE, the Ottoman Sultan, Selim invaded Egypt and took the title of Caliph for himself. Almost a millenia after Muhammad’s death, the title of the Caliph went to someone outside Muhammad’s tribe, the Quraysh.

The Mughal Empire

Mughal Empire | Map, Rulers, Decline, & Facts

The Mughal Empire History

Mughal Empire 1526–1857
The empire at its greatest extent, c. 1700

The Mughal Empire: On the fringes of the Subcontinent of India, there are two countries with a Muslim majority. On the west, there’s Pakistan and on the east, there’s Bangladesh. Both of these countries, as well as the huge minority of Muslims living in India, have one dynasty to thank for their Muslim faith, the Mughal Empire.

In the 8th Century, the Umayyad Caliphate conquered Sindh, in what is today Pakistan. However, India was too distant to control and subsequent Caliphs were unable to exercise control over it or expand further. Then, in the 11th century, Mahmud of Ghazni (محمود الغزنوي) invaded India and established a permanent Turkic regime thereafter taking Lahore in 1030. After the collapse of his empire, various dynasties ruled northern India, collectively called Delhi Sultanate. Although, none was very successful for very long. The last of these dynasties was the Lodhi dynasty.

Babur and Humayun (1526–1556)

Main Articles:- Babur and Humayun

Babur and Humayun Mughal Empire
Main South Asian polities circa 1525 CE, on the eve of the establishment of the Mughal Empire by Babur.

In 1526, a Timurid prince named Zahir ad-din Muhammad Babur (ظهير الدين بابر), with nothing to lose and no options left in Central Asia decided to invade India. Babur was a fifth-generation descendant of Tamerlane (تيمورلنك) and a thirteenth-generation descendant of Genghis Khan (چنگیز خان). Like many other Timurid princes, he claimed the entirety of Timur’s empire. However, he was barely even able to rule Fergana valley. He was pushed south from there by the rise of the Uzbeks until he established his seat of power in Kabul. With the Safavids to the West and Uzbeks to the North, he had nowhere to go but east.

East was India. In 1526, he faced the ruling Lodi Dynasty at Panipat Despite the rather overwhelming odds, he defeated them, and over the next four years, he conquered almost all of North India after facing other local Hindu and Muslim rulers.

The dynasty he founded came to be known as the Mughals, which is the Persian word for Mongol. Although, the dynasty itself held strong ties to Timur and called itself the Gurkani dynasty. Gurkan being the title of Timur meaning the Royal Son-in-Law, the son-in-law of Genghis Khan as Timur liked to boast. Babur died in 1530 at the age of forty-six or forty-seven.

The story goes that his son and heir Nasir ad-Din Humayun (نصير الدين همايون) had fallen ill and Babur had bargained with God for his son’s life in exchange for his. Although, as was soon revealed, the bargain wasn’t the best bargain he could’ve gotten. His apparent weakness invited challenges from many local rulers. One Afghan noble named Sher Khan Suri (شیر خان صوری) overthrew Humayun in 1539.

Humayun pretty much became homeless and wandered through Sindh for several years. Although, Sher Khan or as he was now called Sher Shah Suri (شیر شاہ صوری) died in battle in 1545 and his empire was divided up. On the other side, Humayun asked the Safavids for help and started conquering the divided empire. By 1555, both Delhi and Lahore were back in his control. Unfortunately, he lost control while running down the stairs and fell. He died soon after in 1556. That’s why you should never run down the stairs or up or just… run.

Akbar to Aurangzeb (1556–1707)

Main Articles:- Akbar, Jahangir, Shah Jahan, and Aurangzeb

Akbar to Aurangzeb (1556–1707)
Akbar holds a religious assembly of different faiths in the Ibadat Khana in Fatehpur Sikri.

Humayun’s son, Jalal ud-Din Muhammad Akbar (جلال الدین محمد اکبر), a mere twelve or thirteen-year-old was installed as the next ruler of the Mughal Empire. Regents ruled and stabilized the empire on the young Shahanshah’s behalf for the first five years of his reign. By 1561, he was ready to take charge. He expanded the empire further conquering Gujarat, Bihar, and much of Bengal. However, at this point, the Mughals had a bit of a legitimacy problem. They were a foreign Muslim dynasty ruling over a realm where less than 5% of the population followed the same faith as them.

Babur and Humayun were followers of Sufi Islam and that’s also how Akbar started his reign. Although, over the years, he began a struggle to reconcile Islam and the various Indian religions. He invited scholars of various religions to have open discussions in the Ibadat-Khana (عبادت خانہ). He also invited Jesuits from the Portuguese enclave at Goa.

In fact, the Portuguese had arrived in India three decades before the Mughals did. Akbar reconciled all these ideas into his Din-I Ilahi (دین الہی) or Divine Religion. This new religion kind of put the ruler as partly divine and that was not popular with the Muslims who recited that there is no god but God. He also started worshiping the sun every morning. He tried to cozy up to the Hindus by abolishing the Jizya tax and by financing Hindu Temples.

He was also the one who translated Mahabharata into Persian so his people could read it and understand Hinduism slightly better. By this point, the subcontinent was pretty much self-sufficient and only imported precious metals, war horses, and just a few spices. On the other hand, it exported many valuable things such as pepper, saffron, sugar, indigo, and textiles. Although, as the subcontinent was fractured between many rulers, there were a lot of taxes that people had to pay as they crossed from the territory of one ruler to the other. It was also pretty dangerous since everyone was raiding everyone else. Although, it all changed with the arrival of the Mughals.

Group of Mughal Rulers
Group portrait of Mughal rulers, from Babur to Aurangzeb, with the Mughal ancestor Timur seated in the middle. On the left: Shah Jahan, Akbar and Babur, with Abu Sa’id of Samarkand and Timur’s son, Miran Shah. On the right: Aurangzeb, Jahangir and Humayun, and two of Timur’s other offsprings Umar Shaykh and Muhammad Sultan. Created c. 1707–12

During the brief period of Sher Shah Suri’s rule, he had united all of North India under his banner which allowed trade to flourish from the western edge of India to the eastern one. Sher Shah Suri was also the one who introduced the Rupee coin. So, Hindu Nationalists, take note, that’s another thing you gotta change. He also built the Grand Trunk Road or as it’s called now, GT Road which connected his vast empire from the border of Afghanistan all the way to Bengal.

The Mughals designed a system of bureaucracy called the Mansabdari System which was reformed by Akbar. A Mansabdar (منصبدار) was an official who was liable to provide the emperor with troops. They had various grades and the higher the grade, the more troops they had to provide. It ranged from 10 soldiers to 5,000 during Akbar’s reign. To finance their obligation to the emperor, they were given a jagir (جاگیر) which was essentially the right to collect taxes from a certain amount of land.

The emperor himself appointed these Mansabdars so they remained loyal to him and he moved them around so they wouldn’t be able to build a base of power in one place. The system was open to all faiths and in fact, some of the highest Mansabs were held by Mughal and Rajput Princes. The Mansabdars had to handle the Zamindars (زمیندار) who were landowners with a significant degree of command over a single or a few villages.

The Mansabdars often came into conflict with these Zamindars as they tried to collect taxes or enforce edicts but the Zamindars resisted. Due to all these reforms, Akbar was able to provide the strong foundation the young Mughal Empire needed to thrive in India. He is considered the greatest Mughal Emperor by many. In fact, Akbar means “The Great” and was a title, not his given name. He died in 1605.

Akbar’s son and heir, Nur ad-Din Muhammad Jahangir (نور الدین محمد جہانگیر) further tried to expand the empire but it had pretty much reached its limits. He even tried to conquer Timur’s former empire but that didn’t go anywhere. During his reign, he started actively trying to kill the newly founded Sikh religion, from the region of Punjab. He even executed a Sikh guru. An interesting thing from Jahangir’s reign is that he tried to take over Ahmadnagar to the south which fell in 1616 but a rather famous unknown general named Malik Ambar (ملک عنبر) started guerilla warfare against the Mughals there.

He became a major headache for the Mughals but more damaging to the Mughals was the legacy of Deccan Resistance against Mughal rule that he started. He had gathered many Hindus and Muslims in his mission including a Maratha general named Shahaji Bhosale. He’ll become important later. Malik Ambar died in 1626 and Jahangir died in 1627.

leaving the Mughal Empire to Shahab ad-Din Muhammad Shah Jahan (شھاب الدین محمد شاہ جہان). Shah Jahan pressed even harder on the Deccan but again, not very successfully. In 1646, Shah Jahan actually led a campaign into Transoxiana with the dreams of conquering the Timurid Empire. However, nothing was achieved there either.

He was the one who built the Taj Mahal for his beloved deceased wife, Mumtaz Mahal (ممتاز محل) who, by the way, died giving birth to the couple’s fourteenth child in the nineteenth year of their marriage in 1631. Shah Jahan seemed like he was close to death in 1657 and so, civil war erupted among his sons. Even though Shah Jahan recovered, his sons had too much invested in the war and so, he was overthrown and imprisoned by his own son Muhi ud-Din Muhammad Aurangzeb (محی الدین محمد اورنگزیب) in 1658 after he won the civil war against his brother.

Shah Jahan would spend the next eight years imprisoned in Agra fort being able to see but never visit the Taj Mahal. Aurangzeb was what’s called traditionally pious. He revoked many of the tolerant policies implemented by Akbar. He imposed Islam on the entire realm and even composed the Fatawa al-Alamgiriyya (الفتاوى العالمكيرية‎) which is a compilation of the Sharia from various sources like the Quran and the Hadith.

He banned music but he couldn’t completely impose that. Although, at the same time, he employed people in his court based on merit and not religion. He employed the largest percentage of Hindus in his court, of any Mughal ruler. He did patronize the construction of Hindu temples while, at the same time, ordering the destruction of temples that he deemed “attractive to Muslims”. Like his great-grandpa Akbar, Aurangzeb was a conqueror. He spent most of his life in military campaigns. He extended the empire further south but it got more and more difficult to control. He opened the Pandora’s Box that was the Deccan.

He controlled the Mughal Empire at its territorial zenith and controlled the biggest portion of India since Muhammad ibn Tughlaq’s (محمد ابن تغلق) death in 1351. Shahaji Bhosale’s son, the great Maratha warrior Chhatrapati Shivaji Bhosale founded the Maratha empire which would quickly conquer quite an impressive amount of land in the south.

The Zamindars and Mansabdars obtained more and more power and grew restless. The system established by Akbar needed a strong and active ruler who could keep an eye on the Mansabdars but that just wasn’t Aurangzeb’s strong suit. On top of that, the Mansabdars were tired of raising and sending troops all the time. The empire’s treasury was also depleted by the constant warring. Aurangzeb spent his final years either conquering new lands or destroying rebellions in previously conquered ones. After Aurangzeb’s death in 1707.

Decline (1707–1857)

invading Maratha Empire
Horsemen of the invading Maratha Empire

A civil war broke out. Before it was over, two of his sons and three of his grandsons were dead. His eldest son Bahadur Shah (بہادر شاہ) ascended to the throne at the age of sixty-four. He repealed his father’s conservative and discriminatory policies against the Hindus, in order to win them over Although, Hindus weren’t exactly.

The biggest problem the empire was facing. Bahadur Shah himself died in 1712 and before 1720, there were two more wars of succession until the reign of Muhammad Shah (محمد شاہ) started. His reign was somewhat stabilized the empire until in 1739, Nadir Shah (نادر شاہ), the Afsharid ruler of Persia invaded, looted, and sacked Delhi. Whatever illusion those around the Mughals had about their strength was now shattered.

The Marathas had already conquered almost all of South India. Now, they were eyeing Delhi itself. On the other side, Ahmad Shah Durrani, the first ruler of Afghanistan and a protégé of Nadir Shah was harassing the Mughals as well. He attacked Delhi thrice, in 1748, 1757, and 1760. Marathas conquered Delhi in 1757 and the Mughals were now their tributaries. Their control expanded barely outside the walls of the city. After the collapse of the Marathas, a joint-stock English company whose ambition and avarice knew no bounds whatsoever, replaced them as the puppet masters From 1757 to 1857, the empire remained but only in name.

In 1857, it joined the Indian Mutiny and the British finally put an end to its miserable existence. The last Mughal Emperor, Bahadur Shah II (بہادر شاہ ظفر) was imprisoned where he died. Other Mughal princes were beheaded and their bodies were displayed at the Khooni Darwaza (خونی دروازہ) which literally means “The Gate of Blood”.

The legacy of the 331 years of Mughals’ existence in India can still be seen all around the Subcontinent. The culture they developed revolved around the Turko-Persian culture of their homeland but eventually, it became its own thing after merging with various local traditions. For instance, it was during the reign of Aurangzeb that Urdu started to emerge as its own language even though many still insist that it’s just Hindi with slight changes.

Among tourists to the Subcontinent of India, the Mughals are famous for the beautiful buildings and miniature paintings they left behind. Shah Jahan alone commissioned the imperial city of Shahjahanabad, the Red Fort of Delhi, and the Taj Mahal. Finally, the aspect of Indian life where their legacy is most obvious is in the spread of Islam.

Rise and fall of Seljuk Empire

Seljuk Empire | Achievements, History & Facts

Rise and Fall of the Seljuk Empire

Fall Of Seljuk Empire
Fall Of Seljuk Empire

The Seljuk Empire or Seljuq Empire (Turkish: Büyük Selçuklu Devleti; Persian: دولت سلجوقیان‎, Daulat-i-Saljuqian; English: Seljuq Empire) was a medieval Turkish empire that lasted from 1037 to 1194 AD. It was spread over a very large area that extended from the Hindu Kush mountains in the east to Anatolia in the west and from Central Asia in the north to the Persian Gulf in the south. The Seljuq people originated from the Qinik sub-branch of the Oghuz branch of the Turkic-speaking peoples of the steppe region of Central Asia. Their original homeland was near the Aral Sea, from where they first captured Khorasan, then Iran, and then Anatolia. The Seljuq Empire led to the influence of Turkish culture in Iran, northern Afghanistan, the Caucasus, and other areas, and a mixed Iranian-Turkish cultural tradition.

Name and Origin

Seljuq Begh was a high official in the Oghuz Yabgu kingdom, located in the region between the Aral Sea and the Caspian Sea, and the empire was named ‘Seljuq’ after him. He separated his tribe and first camped on the banks of Sir Darya, where this tribe also adopted Islam. After this, his grandsons Tughril Beg and Chaghri Beg started spreading in Khorasan where they used to loot. When the local Ghaznavi Empire tried to stop them, the Ghaznavids were defeated in the Battle of Dandanqan on 23 May 1040. The Seljuq people became the masters of Khorasan and then they also occupied the Amu-Par region and Iran. By 1055, Tughril Beg had extended his territory as far as Baghdad, where the Abbasi caliphate gave him the title of Sultan, which became the title of all subsequent Seljuq rulers. Although the Shia branch of Islam was flourishing in Iran at the time, the Seljuqs were Sunni and the policies of the Seljuqs were a major reason for the presence of more Sunnis than Shiites in the modern Middle East.

The history of the Seljuk Empire in Anatolia begins with the historic defeat of Byzantium by Sultan Alif Arsalan in Malazgar in 1071 AD. after the battle of Manzikert, the Seljuk commander Suleiman ibn Qutulmish, a distant cousin of Malik-Shah I and a former contender for the throne of the Seljuk Empire, came to power in western Anatolia. In 1075, he captured the Byzantine cities of Nicaea (İznik) and Nicomedia (İzmit). it was 1077 AD when the foundation of the Roman Empire was laid and almost for 150 years Seljuki ruled Anatolia during this they faced a lot of Crusaders who came to Qustantuniya after ruling 150 years in Anatolia their decline began the main reason for this is the attack of Mongols on Anatolia and start controlling them sultan Alauddin Kayqubad was the 12th sultan of this kingdom who controls the thorn in 1220 AD and stayed ruler until his death in 1237 AD

Mongol conquest of the Khwarazmian Empire

Mongol conquest of the Khwarazmian Empire
Mongol conquest of the Khwarazmian Empire

The reign of Kayqubad I is called the golden age in Roman history But the year of the accession of Kayqubad I is the same year that Genghis Khan defeated the Khwarizm Empire in 1220 and its borders extended to Asia Minor. After the defeat of the Khwarizmi Empire, the borders of the Seljuk Empire merged directly with the Mongol Empire. and in the reign of Kayqubad I, Mongols already starts attacking Anatolia but till the death of Kayqubad I, Mongols Avoid to attack directly Seljuk empire In the reign of Kayqubad I , we found the name of Ertugrul Ghazi first time who helped the army of Kayqubad I and Saved from defeat and that’s why the area of sight was given to them as a property the basic reason for this is to decrease the attack chance from byzantine empire In 1237AD, after the death of Kayqubad I his son Ghiyasuddin became the king But he could not come up with any special strategy against the Mongols

Mongol invasions of Anatolia

In 1243 AD, In the famous battle of Kose Dag, Seljuks room gets defeated badly by the Mongols and Ghiyasuddin escaped from battle The Mongols established their influence in most of Anatolia but were reluctant to seize the Seljuk capital, Konya. This was due to the strong support of the Seljuks among the spokesman tribes of Anatolia after three years of this war, Sultan Ghiyasuddin died because of a bite of wild animals. According to some, he was martyred by the Mongols through conspiracy after this the eleven-year-old son of Ghiyasuddin, Izuden kaka became the new king of the Seljuk empire Due to their young age and inexperience, the Mongol influence on Anatolia deepened over time. due to civil war and Palace conspiracies, izuden kaka was have to share his thorn with his two other brothers due to which the Seljuk empire divided and became weak on the other hand the interference of Mongols in Anatolia have reached the capital of the Seljuks Empire Konya in 1256 AD, Izuden kakabus gather the remaining Seljuk empire and Rebellion against Mongols to evict them from Anatolia.

Byzantine Empire

Byzantine Empire | History, Geography, Maps, & Facts

Rise and Fall of Byzantine Empire

Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire

The Byzantine Empire or Eastern Roman Empire) was one of the longest-lasting empires in history. At its height in the medieval period, it was the most sophisticated and wealthiest empire in Europe. These erudite Greek-speaking people were the guardians of ancient classical civilization until the Empire’s collapse, and they considered themselves true Romans until the end.

Once a Roman imperial backwater, the small city of Byzantium was chosen by Rome’s first Christian emperor, Constantine the Great, to be his new capital. It would be renamed Constantinople after the emperor, and Constantine would decorate his city with magnificent treasures from across the Roman world. Constantinople was also chosen for its incredible defensive position, situated on the Bosporus strait and surrounded by water. When wave after wave of barbarian invaders appeared on the Danube border in the 4th and 5th centuries AD, Rome was sacked twice.

Constantinople and the Eastern provinces, however, were protected by a combination of geography and diplomacy. Two emperors ruled the Roman empire at once during this period, and the wealthier Eastern Roman emperor played for time by paying off some of the Barbarian invaders. While temporarily free from invasion, the East was fortified. Constantinople was not easy to attack at the best of times, and soon, Theodosius II gave it near-impenetrable walls. Multiple barbarian groups struggled to undermine the Eastern capital, and even Attila the Hun, the so-called “scourge of God,” ultimately avoided it.

The Politics of Roman Memory in the Age of Justinian

The Politics of Roman Memory in the Age of Justinian
The Politics of Roman Memory

Constantine’s strategic masterstroke would prove highly effective, and the eastern half of the empire would hold out for another thousand years. While the West completely collapsed into a series of barbarian successor kingdoms, starting the European Dark Ages, Byzantium would have its first golden age in the 6th century AD.

By 500 AD, Constantinople had half a million inhabitants, and the city was filled with baths, a popular racetrack, and many churches and grand public buildings. In 527, the ambitious Emperor Justinian I would take the throne, embarking on a lengthy campaign of reconquest in an attempt to restore the Roman empire to its former glory. He was highly successful and would recapture swathes of North Africa, part of Spain, and the whole of Italy. With the money garnered from his conquests, he reshaped the city of Constantinople with many spectacular building projects.

The iconic cathedral, the Hagia Sophia, was built during his reign, and nobody would be able to replicate its enormous dome again until the renaissance. Justinian was a great emperor, but after his death, his attempts at restoration would crumble, and the empire would quickly lose most of its Spanish, African, and Italian possessions once again.

Byzantium would go through a period of a protracted war with the neighboring Sassanid Persian Empire, during which time they lost large areas of land in the East. Byzantium’s next great emperor, Heraclius I, came to the throne in 610 and would have a long and difficult reign in which he steadily restored Byzantine territory in a heroic series of campaigns. However, his victories were short-lived, and towards the end of his life, his success was ripped from him. In the Arabian Peninsula, the prophet Muhammad had just died in AD 632.

Muhammad’s successors would embark on one of the most staggeringly successful campaigns of conquest in history, and the now weakened Persian Empire would be crushed by the advance of the new Muslim caliphate, which then immediately turned on the Byzantine Empire. In less than a century, the Muslim Ummayyad Empire would spread all the way from central Asia to northern Spain. All Heraclius’ good work was undone in one fell swoop, and Byzantium now faced a new tougher nemesis.

Byzantine Dark Ages

Byzantine Dark Ages
Byzantine Dark Ages

The late 7th and early 8th centuries are sometimes known as the Byzantine Dark Ages, as the empire struggled for its survival against this new military juggernaut. Convinced that God was punishing the Byzantine Empire, the 8th-century Isaurian military emperors would reform the army to great effect, but they would also introduce a new religious policy, known as iconoclasm.

The Bible’s Old Testament warns against the use of graven images, but since the time of Justinian, icons depicting the saints had become a popular form of religious worship. Ideas about the power of icons varied hugely, but some people believed they had quasi-magical powers. During the Persian siege of Constantinople in 626,

The armies of the faithful had held up an icon of Mary on the walls, which was later rumored to have saved the city. Convinced that such beliefs were blasphemous, several Byzantine emperors purged religious imagery across the empire in a protracted and controversial internal religious struggle. Thankfully, the iconophiles would ultimately win the theological argument about the use of images. Icons were restored for good by Empress Theodora, and icon veneration is still an important part of the Greek Orthodox church today.

Once this religious controversy was put to bed, the Byzantine Empire would bounce back with renewed vigor. Basil I, a hardy peasant soldier, founded the powerful Macedonian dynasty in 867. This period is sometimes known as the Macedonian Renaissance because Byzantine art and learning started to flourish. Icons and mosaics from this period are stunningly beautiful and awash with gold leaves. Knowledge was also collected and systematized.

The Empire’s borders began to expand again, guided by various competent military commanders. Chief among these was Emperor Basil II, known as the “Bulgar Slayer.” He would push Byzantine power northwards into the Balkans, taking on the powerful Bulgarian empire.

The Byzantines would also fight off the Kievan Rus in this period. A major naval assault by Russian ships was defeated with the Byzantine’s now regularly- used secret weapon, a substance known as “Greek Fire.” This napalm-like concoction burned on water and was used from the 7th century onwards in a flamethrower-like device to destroy enemy ships.

The “Wildfire” used in the TV Show Game of Thrones is based on the historical use of this deadly weapon. The Rus were eventually converted to Christianity after prolonged contact with the Greeks, and the Russians developed an alphabet based on Greek – the Cyrillic script – in order to write their own Bible.

The power of the Greek church at this time would solidify a growing split between the papacy in the West and the Greek Orthodox church. Another consequence of the contact with Russia was that many Scandinavian Vikings living in the Rus would travel to Byzantium to become part of the emperor’s elite Varangian Guard – a tradition that would continue for many centuries. Viking runic graffiti is still visible scratched into the stonework of the Hagia Sophia in Istanbul.

Byzantine Empire under the Komnenos Dynasty

Byzantine Empire under the Komnenos dynasty
Byzantine Empire under the Komnenos dynasty

In the 10th century, the Byzantine Empire was now at its height, and once again, it incorporated parts of Italy, as well as much of the Balkans and Armenia. Aside from their northern foes, the Byzantine’s main nemesis in this period was the powerful Muslim Abbasid Empire, the architects of the golden age of Islam.

The contact between these two empires would create conflict but also a fruitful interchange of ideas. A flowering of literature and science would result, and both were indebted to the Byzantine Empire’s large libraries of ancient Greek and Roman texts. This golden age would not last long, and by the 11th century, the empire was in trouble again. The more warlike Seljuk Turks overran the enlightened Muslim Abbasid Caliphate.

The Komnenos Dynasty would be inaugurated in this period after a series of ineffectual rulers failed to protect the Byzantine heartlands from the new threat. The Turks were not interested in peaceful compromises and began harrying the Byzantines, reversing the delicate balance of power in the Near East. They conquered lands in Anatolia and got perilously close to the Byzantine capital itself. To make matters worse, Western European Norman adventurers were spreading across Europe on missions of personal conquest. They would expel the Byzantines from Italy and become just as much of a nuisance as the Turks.

In 1054, the Eastern and Western churches had formally excommunicated each other after centuries of conflict, but the Empire was in peril; Emperor Alexius I Komnenos turned to the Pope for aid. He knew that the western Christians could no longer go on religious pilgrimages to Jerusalem while the Seljuk Turks controlled the area, so he asked for help on their behalf. These events would lead to the preaching of the crusades by Pope Urban II. The Pope argued that the faithful would go to heaven if they took the cross and aided the Byzantine Empire’s eastern Christians.

Byzantine Empire under the Angelos Dynasty

Byzantine Empire under the Angelos dynasty
Byzantine Empire under the Angelos dynasty

The First Crusade was ultimately a success and temporarily created the western Christian states of Outremer in the Levant. Much of the Byzantine land was restored, and the empire was hopeful once again. Wealth flowed into Constantinople from trade with the Crusader states, and the now stable Komnenos Dynasty would produce several great emperors, including the wonderfully wise John II, nicknamed the “Byzantine Marcus Aurelius.” With the end of the Komnenos dynasty came the Byzantium period of terminal decline.

A coup d’état replaced the incompetent Alexius II with the Angelos Dynasty, which failed to deal effectively with a new series of military crises in the Balkans and Anatolia, as well as an invasion by William II of Sicily. Finally, during the Fourth Crusade, many western knights arrived in Constantinople to help the son of a deposed Byzantine emperor retake the throne. They successfully seized the city, but when the now-restored emperor and his son did not pay their western backers in a timely manner, the crusaders sacked Constantinople in 1204.

The crusaders and their Venetian supporters stole most of the city’s riches and carved the empire up between themselves. Byzantium was obliterated and continued only as a series of small Greek successor states which were surrounded by western crusader kingdoms and Italian territories. However, against all odds, the Byzantines would have one last revival.

Fall of Constantinople

Fall of Constantinople
Fall of Constantinople

In 1261, Emperor Michael VIII Palaiologos (of the Greek Kingdom of Nicaea) would recapture Constantinople and reunite parts of Greece and Anatolia. Unfortunately, this briefly-resuscitated Byzantine Empire was very short-lived. The entirety of the 1300s saw a power struggle between the invading Serbs, the Ottoman Turks, and the Italian city-states over the Byzantine’s meager dominions. Territories passed back and forth between many groups, but ultimately,

The Byzantine heartland got smaller and smaller. By the 15th century, the Byzantine Empire’s only dominions were small parts of Greece, a scattered collection of small islands, and the countryside around Constantinople. Finally, in 1453, the Ottoman Sultan Mehmed II launched an attack on Constantinople with hopes of making the city his capital.

Constantinople was still a tough nut to crack, but fortunately for the Sultan, a Hungarian inventor offered him the use of several enormous canons, which were capable of breaking through Constantinople’s near-impenetrable walls. The Byzantines had missed an earlier opportunity to claim the invention for themselves after turning the inventor away. They would pay for it with their lives. Constantinople was promptly captured and transformed into Muslim Istanbul.

The Eastern Roman Empire had finally fallen after many centuries of unity. Although gone, the Byzantine legacy would endure. Refugees from the Empire would take classical Greek and Roman texts west, and Greek artists would introduce new artistic techniques to Italy. The death of this creaking empire would ultimately help to spark the renaissance, and Western Europe would flower due to Byzantium’s destruction.

Soviet Union Map

Soviet Union – Countries, Cold War & Collapse

Soviet Union

In the early 1900s, the Russian Empire was ruled by a single man, Tsar Nicholas II, who exercised complete control over every aspect of the country. The population of Russia was poor, stupid, and hungry, and wouldn’t look out of place in any time period in the past thousand years.

Soviet Union Map
Soviet Union Map

In 1914, the Russian Empire declared war on Germany, starting a long, painful war, characterized by the age-old Russian war tactic of swamping the enemy with troops and hoping for the best. After the first year of the war, nearly everyone who was in the Russian army by the start of the war had been killed or wounded. There were a lot of food shortages. Mutiny broke out among the soldiers.

Everyone was simply fed up with the battle. Eventually, the people decided they had had enough and overthrew the government, forcing the Tsar to abdicate and hand over power to a provisional government. Meanwhile, in Switzerland, this dude, Vladimir Lenin, looked at this and thought that the time was now for a continent-wide Communist revolution.

Communism in the Soviet Union
Communism in the Soviet Union

What is communism?: In the shortest possible way; rich people exploit poor people so poor people should overthrow rich people and take control over the country and then eventually countries, money, war, and All forms of inequity, hunger, and poverty will vanish. So Lenin got on a train to Russia to take over the country and the Germans just let him do it for the ‘bants’. When he gets to Russia he tells all his communist buddies in the Bolshevik party that the time to take control is now. The Provisional Government had scheduled elections in November 1917. “Hang on” thought Lenin and the Bolsheviks.

“The Provisional Government has about as much legitimacy as we do because no one elected them.” But if they hold and win an election then they have legitimacy and we don’t have any legal argument to take over the country. So what if we launched a coup and took over the provisional government before the elections can be held and then hold elections so then we have legitimacy? Ho ho ho delightfully devilish, Lenin”.

So they did. And then they held the elections. And lost them, coming to a distant second place to the…uh…provisional government. [Curb your Enthusiasm theme] “Well, we tried. Time to take over the country by force”. So they did. A lot of people were understandably very annoyed at this, so formed a coalition called the White Army, made up of provisional government supporters, Socialists, Social Democrats, Capitalists, and even people who wanted the Tsar back. Sucks for them because in March 1918 the Bolsheviks had him taken into a basement and shot.

The Soviet Union and the United States: This coalition went to war with the Bolsheviks in an attempt to regain control over the country and was helped along the way by Britain and the USA. This wasn’t enough however as by 1922, the rule of the Bolshevik, or “Communist”, the party had been cemented. With all that out the way, it’s time to fix Russ- uh, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.

Lenin’s top economists drew up an idea called New Economics, where the government will take 50% of what you produce and redistribute it to society and then you can sell the rest or keep it or whatever I don’t care. Half of the party think that this is a good idea and this should basically be communism but the other half thought it should only be kept in place until a more communist-er idea could be found.

Thankfully both sides are united by Lenin so they’ll just do whatever he– oh shit he’s dead. So now we need to elect a new leader and there are a bunch of candidates, but everyone knows it’s gonna be this guy, Leon Trotsky who was Lenin’s For the majority of the revolution, he was his right-hand man.

Trotsky’s Struggle against Stalin: Trotsky was a member of the “New Economics is groovy and exciting” group, and he wished to see other countries become communists. However, this guy, Joseph Stalin, is the exact opposite they thought New Economics was uncool and wanted to focus on communism in Russia before spreading it around the world. And surprise, Stalin wins.

Then he has all his opponents exiled and executed. With complete supreme control of the party, Stalin now needed complete supreme control of the country. Why not do what the Tsar did and keep your population too stupid and poor to rebel against you? Wait no that made him lose a war and his life. What if we killed anyone, and I mean literally anyone, who we suspect could do anything less than show their complete eternal loyalty to me personally? And then ban non-communists from elections, and then ban freedom of expression, and then ban religion and freedom of movement, and abortion, and same-sex relationships, and art.

Stalin said that the Soviet Union was fifty to a hundred years behind the rest of Europe in terms of social and political developments, and if they didn’t shape up quickly the other western powers would be able to steamroll them in a war. So, the USSR embarked on a rapid modernization plan known as the Five Year Plans. The plans organized every aspect of the economy down to the last worker and each five-year plan focused on a different sector of the economy.

The first two plans went swimmingly, aside from a couple of genocides in Ukraine [cough cough], and the Soviet Union went from a feudal rural economy to full industrial power. Halfway through the third plan, however, Stalin noticed that Germany was getting a bit too tetchy for his liking and might be ready to start a war, which the USSR wouldn’t be ready for until at least 1945.

Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact:
Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact:

Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact: Foreign Minister of the Soviet Union This Word Molotov met with German Foreign Minister Yohahim Von Ribbentrop and signed an agreement in which they would both invade Poland at the same time and then remain neutral. So, in September 1939, they invaded and conquered Poland completely. Thankfully, Germany accepted full responsibility and launched a war on the wrong side of Europe. That has given us some breathing room to prepare. We should be ready for war in 1945 if we are not invaded. You’re probably guessing where this is headed. [Night on a Bald Mountain] [Night on a Bal The USSR is eventually able to force the Axis back all the way to Berlin.

On its journey to Germany, the USSR made a pit stop in Eastern Europe to free the region from Nazi domination and hold elections so that these countries could now decide their own fate. What a shock that they all voted to become Soviet-aligned communist satellite states…why would they do that? The United States, which had previously shown little interest in the Soviet Union, was worried by this and adopted a containment policy to ensure that the Soviets would not expand Communism further. They even spent several months flying in supplies to defend their section of Berlin from a Soviet siege.

Cold War
Cold War

Cold War: This is the start of the Cold War, where Russia and the USA tried to outdo each other in all aspects of everything, to try and prove that their respective system was the best. In military size, strength, number of satellite states, economy, secret intelligence, quality of life, sport, science, cinema, chess, anything you can think of, really.

The Soviet Union began to fund communist rebellions and uprisings across the world, which sometimes worked and sometimes didn’t, while the USA did the same. In 1949 the Soviet Union developed its first Atomic Bomb, putting its military power on par with the Americans. Of course, neither side used the bombs as this would result in the death of all life on earth,

so it’s best just to continue with the international dick-waving contest rather than actually fighting. And then suddenly Stalin died after having a stroke and pissing himself, so he was replaced by Nikita Khrushchev, one of Stalin’s closest advisers and former governor of Ukraine. Back home, the number of Soviet deaths in this period decreased dramatically and after one last famine in 1948, the USSR didn’t experience any more famines or mass purges.

In fact, a CIA report from the 70s stated that the caloric intake of the average Soviet citizen was only slightly lower or even on par with the average American. Furthermore, the poverty rate in the USSR of 20% is only just above the USA’s 19.5%. Khrushchev said that full Communism would be achieved by the 1980s and this whole Soviet Union nonsense was just a transitional measure, and people seemed to accept that. Seems if you put an early access sticker on something that isn’t finished, people will still buy into it.

In the meantime the Soviet government under Khrushchev built tons of apartment blocks meant to be temporary housing until Communism could become real and then everyone would live in really nice modular homes As of 2019 there are still thousands of them all around the former Soviet Union and in places like Latvia, 66% of the population still lives in them.

Because the soviet economy was so middling, the Soviet government tried to show it was better than capitalism by instead leading the exploration of the space frontier. Soviet art and literature had a real fetish for space exploration, thinking that when Communism was achieved on earth, humanity could branch outwards and explore the universe. Using stolen German rocket technology, the Soviets were able to launch a satellite into space in 1957, which relayed a series of beeps to prove it had got there.

This initiated what is known as the Space Race. Unlike the USA, where all the scientists were unified, the Soviet government tried to play their rocket scientists against each other to increase competition and achieve faster results. This partially worked, as the USSR was first to send a dog into space, followed by a man, and then we were trying to get to the moon when the USA burst in a got there first. But an impressive record nonetheless.

Cuban Missile Crisis: In 1962, the Soviet government began building missile silos on the newly-communist island of Cuba, which alarmed the USA because while the US had missile capabilities to hit any part of the USSR, the USSR did not yet have the ability to do the same to the US. So the Americans set up a naval blockade around Cuba and told the Soviets that they were going to inspect everything that comes through for nukes and if not they were going to shoot them.

So in order to not stop the nuclear war from not being not a thing, the Soviets just said “eh, we’ll stop giving Cuba nukes if you stop giving Italy “And Turkey nukes,” the US said, “Oh, okay.” And everyone else whose lives depended on the US and Soviet Union not being idiots all breathed a sigh of relief. By 1964 excessive spending on foreign wars and the space race and a system that didn’t generate wealth meant that the Soviet economy ground to a halt for the next twenty years. All in all, the Soviet Union’s economy was only around the size of Italy.

The new Soviet leader, Leonid Brezhnev, sought more peaceful relations with the United States so they didn’t have to spend as much on the military. In 1972 they signed the SALT agreement, limiting the number of nukes each one of them was allowed to build. The proxy conflicts and nuclear tensions with the United States appeared to be coming to an end. One of the USSR’s final military interventions came when they invaded Afghanistan in the 1980s.

In response, the USA and other western powers boycotted the 1980 Moscow Olympics, meaning the Soviets and the East Germans just won every event. Interestingly still on drugs though. In response, the Soviet Union boycotted the 1984 US Olympics. Afghanistan was effectively a Russian counterpart of the Vietnam War, in that the war was a catastrophic disaster and the forces were forced to cancel. And now, a bit about Chernobyl. Because I couldn’t fit it into any other part of the script. To keep up with the energy demands of the vast Empire the government had been investing more in nuclear power, building them all over the country.

However, they were all poorly run, leading to a certain nuclear facility in Pripyat blowing its top and spewing radiation everywhere. Initially, the government tried to cover it up because the glorious soviet dictatorship of the proletariat was incapable of making mistakes, but when power plants in Sweden began showing indicators of dangerously high radiation levels The rest of the globe had picked up on the fact that something was wrong.

The region surrounding the factory was evacuated, and it is still unsafe to live there. until the two-hundred and thirtieth century. After Brezhnev and a bunch of other irrelevant Soviet leaders died, Michael Gorbachev became the Soviet chairman. Gorbachev decided that it was basically time to stop mucking around with this state capitalism nonsense and finally commit to making communism real.

There are two ways to do this;

  1. Making the government more transparent and accessible to the average Joe.
  2. Rebuilding the government and economy so it’s actually a bit more communist.

So for the first point, they made it legal to make criticisms of the government, of which there were…a lot.

They also legalized western media. Then, for the second part, they made the USSR’s leader an actual elected President, rather than whoever was the Communist Party’s chairwoman, and then legalized capitalism. in certain scenarios, provided the businesses were run by the workers who worked there. This means McSoviets were created, and Russians were allowed to eat glorious western fast food. Then, Gorbachev organized the first free election in Soviet history, allowing non-communists to become representatives. Boris Yeltsin, a pro-Democracy kind of guy, was soon elected president of Russia.

This really annoyed hardline Stalinists, so they kidnapped Gorbachev and tried to set up an interim government to restore order. It’s time for Yeltsin to save the day, not because he particularly liked Gorbachev but because he wanted to be the one to stage a coup instead. So he did. In addition, Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus declared their independence from the Soviet Union.

Then so did Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Tajiki- okay, so basically everyone tried to declare independence from the USSR. Except for Kazahkstan. So for about five days, the Soviet Union looked like this. His hands tied, Gorbachev signed a document, officially dissolving the Soviet Union on December 25th 1991.

Deccan Empire

The First Independent Islamic State in Deccan

Deccan Sultanate | Bahmani Sultanate

Deccan Sultanate

The first invader to pay attention to the Deccan was Sultan Jalal Alauddin Hasan Gangu Bahmani. He had the Deccan country that it needed the Deccan but did Khilji’s son-in-law and nephew as Sultan Alauddin Khilji but this Sultan was had been accumulating in the treasury of Deccan for thousands of years. So that which. Alauddin Khilji probably would never have known about this wealth.

He never had to if his Hindu companions did not tell him the secret of Deccan’s wealth so, on the advice of his Hindu companions, hid from his uncle Deogri, a long way from northern India. Begin preparations for the invasion. In Deccan, this Hindu Muslim, later known as the sovereign Islamic state remained the roots of all these Islamic regimes. * I was the most gained importance snatched the government from his uncle Jalaluddin Khilji on the basis of this wealth Khilji, who had become king at that time.

The Deccan area in northern India was located at Devagiri. remained after coming from Asia Hindu kings of Deccan grew up in the position of Sultan and Sultan for thousands together he established an independent government in Dhakan which face the difficulties and troubles of years, during which the governments of the Deccan lived on the Deccan? He continued to rule the area calmly and with ease and an attack on the lid because of the distance. instead of the country which was an owner of a strong government Therefore, they never looked up Musalman Badshah conquered most of India from Badshah Gujarat to Bengal, the to Deccan.

What would the foreign invaders from Central Asia do His power in the Deccan had become so strong after conquered that Sultan Jalaluddin Khilji’s son-in-law and nephew Sultan Alauddin Khilji but he also did not turn to the Deccan because he did not dare to do it for a long time What about Khilji anytime if he could have snatched the government from Khilji Allauddin could have if his Hindu companions told him the secret of Deccan wealth.

Ala-ud-Din Khilji’s Conquest of the Deccan, Devagiri and Telingana

Alauddin did not tell his Hindu companions Preparations for the attack on Deogri began, Alauddin Khilji hid the intention of Deccan to such an extent that when Janib left, he kept saying that he was going for the conquest of the army from Kara in six hundred and ninety-four hijras every year Chanderi in Although the king of Devagiri to his uncle Jalaluddin Khilji.

plundered all his wealth and returned to Kara. Alauddin Khilji was the first Muslim he he was assassinated and he reached Delhi by car after lavishing the same wealth. Due to his immense wealth there defeating them was the first and most successful attack before any Muslim conqueror who did not go ahead and invade the Deccan. The first successful attack on Deccan turned against the Delhi government. .

Ala-ud-Din Khilji’s Conquest of the Deccan, Devagiri and Telingana
Ala-ud-Din Khilji’s Conquest of the Deccan

After the conquest of Devagiri, Raja Ramdev that who would not know about this wealth of Deccan with his, Will continue to pay the Sultanate. But Raja Ramdev’s repression went back on his promise and refused to pay the tribute. He had promised this Sultan Alauddin Khilji Allauddin Malik, who had been sent a large sum for the Kafur conquered the Deccan and reached Deogri and Raja Ram 1313 AD when the Sultan according to Hijri of Telangana also accepted obedience. the territory was given to it. never turned his back on the capital from Delhi.

In Allauddin Khilji sent Malik Kafur for the conquest of Telangana In this campaign, the Raja Delhi into the government, a large part of the Deccan became part of the Delhi Sultanate, but two years later when the revolt broke out again in Deogri’s new Devgiri. Malik Kafur went to Deccan and crushed this revolt and severely punished the rebels. accepted and he himself came to Delhi when King Ramdev reached Delhi When Shah Khilji ascended the throne of Delhi, a Raja Harpal, the son-in-law of the former Raja, Sultan Mubarak Shah arrested Raja Harpal and skinned him and after correcting the management of Deccan he returned to Delhi’s Khilji made Ghulam Khusro Khan his favorite governor of Deccan.

So Khusrau Khan started manipulating to become the independent king of Deccan. But in old age, he failed due to the efforts of Deccan. When the Ghias Deccan government started raging again. Rebellions Stood up But Mohammed bin Tughlaq himself carried out these revolts. By incorporating Diya then he conquered Rajaji Nagar and after a long period of revolts in there was peace in Deccan in 1344 AD. Most disorders in the Deccan were born during this period.

The king of Telangana became independent and the When Muhammad ibn Tughlaq transferred to each other. According to 744 AH, and separated from the government of Telangana and Karnataka Delhi among the other amirs. Bedar and. And the same beauty Gangu The amirs who were among the Sadas revolted also led to uprisings in Gulbarga Bahmani Empire, needed.


Mayans | People, Civilization, Pyramid & Empire

Who were the Mayans, and why did their thriving civilization suddenly collapse and fail? It is a question that has puzzled historians and explorers for decades—one which has given rise to a variety of theories, none of them entirely adequate. We may never know how and why a people that had endured for thousands of years abruptly vacated cities, colossal temples, farms, and homes, largely disappearing into the annals of history.

When did the Mayans civilization

Mayans Civilization

It is believed that early Mayans arrived in what is present-day Guatemala as early as 11,000 B.C. and that they arrived there from Siberia via a land bridge. Over time, these hunter/gatherer tribes grew and expanded into Mexico and parts of Central America. It was not until around 2,000 B.C, however, that the Maya civilization began to take root and thrive. Following the age of hunter/gatherers, the history of the Maya is defined by five major periods.

The Pre-classic or Formative Period, which was marked by the advent of villages and organized agriculture, began around 1800 B.C. The Pre-classic Maya were more advanced, displaying cultural traits like city construction and pyramid-building. Then came the Middle Pre-Classic Period, which lasted until about 300 B.C. During this period, farmers expanded their presence in the highland and lowland regions and came under the influence of the expanding Olmec Empire. Many aspects of Mayans culture were derived from the Olmecs, including religious and cultural traits, as well as the Maya calendar and numbers system.

The Golden Age of the Maya Empire

The Golden Age of Maya Empire

The Classic Period was also known as “The Golden Age.” The Golden Age began around 250 A.D. and lasted until the Terminal-classic, or Period of Disaster, in the late eighth century through the end of the ninth century A.D. The period from that time until the fifteenth century is known as the Post-Classic Period.

The earliest Maya spoke a single language, but by the Pre-Classic Period, a diversity of languages had developed. Today, there are some 70 Maya languages spoken in modern-day Mexico and Central America. Most of the 5 million or so Mayas also speak Spanish.

The main seats of Maya civilization were environmentally and culturally diverse. They consisted of Belize and western Honduras, the northern Maya lowlands on the Yucatan Peninsula, the southern lowlands in northern Guatemala and adjacent portions of Mexico, and the southern Maya highlands in the mountainous region of southern Guatemala. As you might imagine, climate conditions, terrain, water, and other natural resources, were just as diverse.

The longevity of the Maya civilization is attributed, in part, to their adaptive abilities and their skill at making the most of what resources were available. The Golden Age saw Maya civilization grow to some 40 cities, including Uaxactún, Copán, Tikal, Bonampak, Calakmul, Palenque, Dos Pilas and Río Bec. These cities were heavily populated, the largest of them containing upwards of 50,000 people.

Rainwater, Technology, and Survival of the Maya

Rainwater, Technology, and Survival of the Maya
Rainwater, Technology, and Survival of the Maya

At its peak, the Mayans population is thought to have grown to as many as ten million. The building of massive temples, palaces, housing, and other structures had already commenced. Underground rivers and sinkholes called cenotes provided much of the water for personal use and irrigation. In regions that had no natural water sources, the Maya used ingenuity to supply their large populations. The region called “Puuc” (Yucatan Peninsula) was one with no streams, rivers, lakes, or springs.

The Maya there used massive systems of cisterns called chultuns to collect and store rainwater. In the fabled city of Palenque, Mayas devised vast aqueduct systems that ran beneath the city’s walls and streets. The Mayans economy was largely based on agriculture and trade. The crop of premier importance was corn, but the Maya also grew red and black beans, squash, chilies, tobacco, and other crops. Over centuries, they developed and refined irrigation systems and expanded into terraced gardening.

They also raised a variety of animals, including cows, pigs, and goats. Markets were established, and laws were enacted to ensure that agriculture and trade ran smoothly. As trade routes were established between various city-states, the populace grew and flourished. Evidence found in the past few decades indicates that trade was widespread. Artifacts show that many goods were moved considerable distances, despite the difficulties and the lack of beasts of burden. Chemical tests have confirmed that some of these items were transported at great distances. Other goods of trade included such diverse products as cotton mantels, slaves, flint, obsidian, seashells, quetzal feathers, tools, and salt.

Mayans Merchant

There were various forms of payment, all of it based on trade rather than monetary units. Smaller purchases were mostly paid for with fish, maize, salt, or any of the other commodities, while larger purchases might be paid with gold, silver, or other “luxury” goods.

The Maya civilization consisted of city-states that encompassed considerable Mesoamerican areas and thousands of square miles. There was no single ruler, rather, a collection of lords and kings who zealously guarded their own cities and holdings. Although much of the prosperity of the Mayans was gained through trade, there was also warfare between competing city-states.

A military campaign might be launched for a variety of reasons; there were conflicts over control of trade routes, forced compliance with the paying of tributes, and attempts to annex territory through attacks on a bordering state. Little is known about how military organizations were formed or trained. Conflicts are depicted in Maya art from the Classic Period; wars and victories are found in hieroglyphic inscriptions but do not provide information on the causes of war or the form it took. From as early as the Pre-Classic Period.

The head of a polity was expected to be a fearless warrior; some are depicted with trophy heads hanging from their belts. By the time of the Classic Period, however, trophy heads no longer appeared in such depictions; rulers are seen as looming threateningly over war captives. Other aspects of Mayans culture included elaborate religious rituals and ceremonies. The Maya believed in blood sacrifice and bloodletting. Rulers, kings, and high priests performed bloodletting rites for every stage in life, every important religious or political event, and for the beginning and end of calendar cycles of any significance.

The ancient Mayans believed that the most sacred blood (aside from that of the heart) was from the tongue and the ear. The piercing of ears symbolized an opening to enable the hearing of revelations from the gods. Likewise, piercings of the tongue would allow for speaking those revelations. The Mayans also practiced human sacrifice; often, the victims were captured in warfare or raids, but they were also selected from the fit, young Mayans. In the ceremonies, the victim was bound, and a priest or ruler cut open the chest and removed the still-beating heart.

Maya Codices

Maya Codices

This event is depicted on ancient objects and pictorial texts known as codices. These sacrifices were evidently intended to appease (or please) the various gods, and there were many, most of them tied to nature. The gods of sun, rain, moon, and corn were but a few of the deities important to the Maya.

The Maya performed other rituals to satisfy the gods and guarantee some order to the world. There were rituals for marriage, divination, and baptism. These ceremonies often coincided with calendar cycles, days considered holy, but also for special events.

A variety of drugs and alcoholic beverages was used in many rituals; inebriation was believed to be helpful in the widespread practice of divination, a ritual designed to allow direct communication with certain supernatural forces. Inebriation was thought to give one insight to interpret the causes of misfortunes like illness and adverse weather. Until the end of the Post-Classic Period, Maya kings took the lead role in wars.

Maya inscriptions reveal that a defeated king could be kept captive, tortured, and even sacrificed. For the defeated polity, outcomes could vary. Entire cities might be sacked and never resettled, as at Aguateca. In other cases, the victors might seize the defeated noble, along with his family, and imprison or sacrifice them to the gods. At the less severe end of the spectrum, the losing polity would be forced to pay a tribute to the victors. Some historians believe these internecine conflicts led to the eventual ruin of the civilization. Whatever the reason, much of the empire began to erode toward the end of the eighth century.

This is Why the Maya Abandoned Their Cities

This is Why the Maya Abandoned Their Cities

The cities in the southern lowlands were mysteriously abandoned, and by A.D. 900, the Maya civilization in that area had collapsed. However, in the highlands of the Yucatan, some cities continued to flourish in the Post-Classic Period. From A.D. 900 to 1500, the glorious centers of Chichen Itza, Mayapan, and Uxmal continued to bustle with life.

A scant century later, the Spanish invaders found most Maya living in agricultural villages. The once-great civilization lay covered in jungle and vines, left to the ravages of nature and time. Exploration of these sites began in earnest in the 1830s. By the early to mid-twentieth century, some of the hieroglyphic writing contained at those sites had been deciphered, allowing a fascinating glimpse into the history and culture of the Maya.

Excavations within the jungles unearthed colossal temples, palaces, plazas, and pyramids, all constructed from solid stone blocks fitted so precisely together that many explorers and historians have wondered if the Mayans had ‘extra-terrestrial help. Also fueling that speculation was the almost eerie accuracy of Mayans astronomy and mathematical calculations that included the famous Mayans calendar. Interestingly enough, it was Mayans astronomers who discovered that a year was not 365 days long but 364.25 days.

It was not until 1582 that Europeans stumbled across what the Mayans had known for centuries. The Mayan calendar, which was developed before the birth of Christ, is still considered the most accurate in existence. It was early Mayan astronomers who first calculated (correctly) that the journey of Venus through the expanse of the heavens took precisely 583.92 days. Calculations were kept on papyrus and carved into stone. Minute recalculations were made and recorded over thousands of years.

What happened to the Mayans civilization remains one of the world’s most enticing mysteries. There are several competing theories, but they are just that—theories. As previously noted, internal warfare between city-states may have led to the breakdown of societal norms and the eventual collapse of governing systems.

That, however, would not explain the sudden departure from populated, well-ordained cities. Some historians hold with the theory of an extreme and prolonged drought or other climate-related disasters, while others postulate a cataclysmic event (like a volcanic eruption or an asteroid colliding with earth). Yet others theorize that the Maya Empire became over-populated and simply depleted the resources needed to sustain millions of citizens.

The reality is that the demise of the Maya may have resulted from one or more of those theories or may have had an entirely different cause. We may never know. We do know that a large number of Maya survived those turbulent times. Today, their descendants comprise nearly 40% of the population of Guatemala and still live in modern-day Belize, El Salvador, Honduras, and Mexico. We who visit may marvel at the stunning architecture and the artwork accomplished with rudimentary tools, plant-based dyes, and hand-mined elements.

We may experience a moment of terror as we stand at the very stone altar where human hearts were ripped from sacrificial victims, or stare in awe at the cavernous, great cenote, wondering what secrets and treasures it holds. But to the remaining Maya, this is their history, their passion. This is their heritage, their home, the land of their ancestors.

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