1967: The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) was founded by Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand.
1988: After 8 years of conflict, a ceasefire was announced between Iran and Iraq.
1988: The withdrawal of Russian forces began after nine years of war in Afghanistan.
1993:The director of Iraq, Saddam Hussein, declared the occupation of Kuwait.
2004: Italy refused to hand over Ottavio Quattrocchi, the main accused in the Before brokerage case, to India.
2010: Tejaswini Sawant of India become the first Indian woman to receive a gold medal in the 50m event of the World Shooting Championship held in Munich.
2013: 28 people were killed in a suicide attack in Kuwait, Pakistan.
Pakistan has permanently stopped the Samjhauta Express train service connecting India and Pakistan. The decision was announced by Pakistan’s Railway Minister Sheikh Rashid Ahmed.
2020: Prime Minister Narendra Modi created the national sanitation center at Rajghat, New Delhi under the Swachh Bharat Mission. During the inauguration ceremony at the national sanitation center, PM Modi had seen a short video based on the theme Swachh Bharat Mission.
Borns On This Day 08 Aug
1904: Tribhuvan Narendra Singh, the Indian politician and Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh was born.
1908: Siddheshwari Devi, a classical music singer, was born.
1940: Dilip Narayan Sardesai, Arjuna Awardee cricketer, was born in Margao, Goa.
1921: Valimiri Ramalingaswami, an Indian medical scientist, was born.
1905: The Indian National Congress called for a boycott of British goods.
1944: A massive machine 51 feet long, 8 feet high, and weighing five tons, named after the first calculator was a bullet.
1974: The electricity and transport system was formally transferred to the Mumbai Municipal Corporation.
1960: Ivory Coast,a country on the continent of Africa, gained independence from the authority of France.*
1972: Ugandan leader Idi Amin ordered people of Asian descent to level the country within 90 days.
1985: Geet Sethi won the world Amature Billiards championship. He becomes the third Indian to achieve this foot.
1990: The US launched Operation Desert shield by deploying troops in Saudi Arabia.
1991: Shahour Bakhtiar, the former prime minister of Iran, was assassinated.
1996: American scientists discovered the possibility of a single-celled organism on mass from the remains of a metro right that fell on earth 13,000 years ago.
1998: Terrorist attacks on Us embassies in the capitals of Kenya and Tanzania killed more than 200 people.
1999: Pakistani Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif once again offered talks with India.
2005: Israel finance Minister Benjamin Netanyahu resigned from his post.
2010: A massive oil spill started in the sea after two ships MSC Chitra and khalifa-3 nautical means from Mumbai.
2020:The SLPP (Sri Lanka People,s Party) led by PM Mahindra Rajapaksa’s victories in the Sri Lanka parliamentary elections. The party won 145 seats out of the 255-member parliament and five of its allies.
2020: Dr. Pradeep Kumar Joshi was sworn in as the Union Public service Commission (UPSC) Chairman. Dr. Pradeep Kumar had succeeded right Arvind Saxena who had completed his tune us UPSC chairman. President Ram Nath Govind appointed him.
2020: Indian Railway started its ‘Kisan rail’ service to transport perishable goods. India’s first ‘Kisan rail’ run Devlali in Nashik, Maharashtra, and Richard Manipur in Bihar.
Borns On This Day 07 Aug
1904: Vasudev Sharan Agrawal, a famous Indian scholar, was born.
1925: The famous Indian agriculture scientist and father of the Green Revolution in India, M. S. Swaminathan was born.
Deaths On This Day 07 Aug
1941: Gurudev Rabindranath Tagore poet, writer, playwriter musician, philosopher, social reformer, and Painter passed away. He received the Nobel prize for Literature in 1913. He was the first Indian to receive a Nobel prize.
2019: Former External Affairs Minister of India Sushma Swaraj passed away due to a heart attack. She was a great leader of the Bharatiya Janata party.
1937: The National Cancer Institute was established in the United States.
1945: The US dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese city of Hiroshima.
1960: Cuba nationalized all the wealth of the country.
1962: Jamaica gained independence.
1964: The world’s oldest tree, Prometheus was cut down in Nevada, USA.
1991: Tim Branches-Lee released files describing his idea for the World Wide Web.WWW was deputed as a publicly available service on the internet.
1996: NASA predicted the possibility of life on Mars.
2007: An old Hindu temple in central Trinidad (an Iceland in the Caribbean or the Caribbean Sea) was damaged.
2017: Hungarian scientists climbed to find a pine tree about 8 million years old.
2010: At the latest 255 people were killed in flash floods in Jammu and Kashmir.
2011: Yingluck Shinawatra the Peu Thai party in Thailand become the country’s first female Prime Minister.
2012: NASA Curiosity rover reached Mars.
2015: At the latest 15 people have been killed in a suicide bombing attack on a mosque in the Saudi city of Abha.
2020: President Ram Nath Kovind appointed Manoj Sinha as the new Lieutenant Governor of the Union Territory of Jammu and Kashmir. Sinha replaced Grace Chandra Murmu, who resigned from his post on 5 August.
2020: Serum Institute of India, Pune, and US-based Novavax head signed an arrangement to supply novavax COVID-19 vaccine to India as well as other law and middle in common income countries. Under the arrangement, at the latest 1 billion doses of the vaccine also nons us and NVX-CoV2373, will be made available to India and other countries.
2020: US President Trump signed an executive order many the Chinese video-sharing app TikTok and its parent company. This order prohibits any transaction with TikTokk parent company ByteDancne Limited or any other company related to it.
Borns On This Day 06 Aug
1921: Freedom fighter and former Governor of Gujarat and Madhya Pradesh K. M. Chandy was born.
1986: India’s first test tube baby was born.
Deaths On This Day 06 Aug
1925: Sundar Nath Banerjee Indian National Congress leader passed away.
For just a few islands located in the central Mediterranean, Malta has a long and rich history! Let’s take a look at the world’s most interesting archipelago!
History of Malta
Malta is a relatively small group of islands. Since it is in a strategically important location, it has played a significant role in the Mediterranean. Throughout its history, different powers always tried to take over the archipelago. The modern country of Malta consists of five islands.
The largest island is called Malta, and to differentiate it from the country, it is often known as Malta Island. Then, there is Comino and Gozo. Completing the set are the uninhabited islands of Kemmunett and Filfla. Malta is located about 58 miles south of Sicily, 180 miles north of Libya, and 180 miles east of Tunisia.
The geographical proximity to all these countries probably emphasizes the area’s strategic importance. People have tried to use these islands as a naval base throughout history since it gives easy access to Europe, Africa, and the Middle East. While it might seem like a nice position to be in, history proves otherwise.
The islands have seen the rule of Phoenicians, Carthaginians, Romans, Greeks, Arabs, Normans, Aragonese, Knights of Saint John, French, British, and others. This diverse ruling history has left an indelible cultural mark on the culture of Malta.
Today, Malta is the world’s 10th smallest country, occupying an area of just 122 square miles and home to a population of around 525,000. However, in the distant past, things were quite different. For one, the archipelago wasn’t always an archipelago! Malta stands on an underwater ridge that connects Sicily to Northern Africa.
This entire ridge served as a dry land bridge between Europe and Africa in the latter part of the Miocene epoch. For a long time, it was believed that the archipelago’s first inhabitants dated back to 5700 BCE. Now, we know with relative certainty that the first inhabitants arrived sometime around 5900 BCE.
Similarly, another misconception was that these people were Sicilians. After analyzing the DNA of archaeological artifacts, we know that both Europeans and Africans existed in this part of the world. These Neolithic people made up fishing and farming communities. In the early days, they lived in caves and villages. One of the earlier reasons to believe that they were from Sicily was the pottery designs, which match those of Sicilians.
There is also some evidence of hunting activities, but we believe that the people did not rely on it as much. But, like any civilization, this one evolved as well. As these people came into contact with other cultures, their pottery designs began to change. Anyhow, the people continued farming until the land gave in.
The soil could no longer sustain agriculture, and the land saw a prolonged period of drought. For the following millennium, the islands were abandoned. Life returned sometime around 3900 BCE. This second wave of the settlement involved a cult of the dead.
Maltese and English are accepted as official languages by Malta and the EU. North African Arabic and a Sicilian dialect of Italian were combined to create Maltese. The only Semitic language that is formally written in Latin is this one. In schools, English is used as a language of teaching. Up until 1934, the majority of the populace could understand Italian because it was the official language of the church and the government.
Tarxien Cemetery phase
The presence of such a group can be gleaned from the collective tombs cut into rocks. Archaeologists have even found an underground burial chamber known as Hal Saflieni Hypogeum, containing many human remains.
The chamber has been given the status of a World Heritage Site by UNESCO. Other constructions from this time consist of the Ggantija Temple in Gozo, one of the oldest free-standing structures in the world. This civilization lasted for about 1,500 years. Their disappearance is not entirely understood, but some speculate that they might have been wiped out by other warring peoples, while others think they could have fallen victim to climate change.
The Tarxien Cemetery culture arrived soon after that, and around 2500 BCE, the Borg In-Nadur people settled in the region. Around the 8th century BCE, the Phoenicians began to make contact with the islands. There is some evidence of their presence as urban culture.
The presence of Phoenician tombs indicates a healthy population that probably used the site to expand their seafaring ambitions. Some existing temples were converted into Phoenician structures. They would have used the area as an essential outpost in their Mediterranean trade routes.
A settlement was present in the present-day cities of Mdina and Rabat, which the Phoenicians called Maleth or “safe haven.” There is more robust evidence of Carthaginian presence. Around the mid-6th century BCE, some of the Phoenician colonies fell under Persia’s rule, including Malta.
Archaeological evidence assures us that by the 4th century BCE, Malta had become a trading post, connecting the two sides of the Atlantic: Sicily in the North and Tripolitania in the South. Another interesting thing that happened in this era was the inclusion of Hellenized motifs.
In architecture and pottery, we notice Hellenized features start to become prominent; however, due to a lack of evidence, nobody is sure of the extent to which the society was Hellenized. Some claim that it could have been a Greek colony, i.e., an aphakia, while others refute any such assumption. Jump forward to the 3rd century BCE, and we know for certain that Malta was raided by the Romans.
The Second Punic War
In the Second Punic War, the islands came under the control of the Romans. According to the Roman historian Titus Livius (commonly known as Livy), The Punic garrison on the island surrendered to the Romans, and the archipelago became a part of the Sicilian province. Still, the Romans did not interfere in the domestic affairs of Malta. In 60, Saint Paul the Apostle was shipwrecked on Malta and started preaching Christianity.
The Roman era brought interesting changes to the archipelago. The city of Maleth was renamed Melite and started expanding. It grew to such an extent that it occupied most of the expanse of the modern-day city of Mdina and even a little bit of Rabat.
Archaeological evidence reveals that the city employed adequate defensive maneuvers like building thick walls on all sides. Not only that, but the settlement also had protective ditches. Evidence of the Roman presence in the area is unmistakable. The antiques and other remains show a clear connection to Sicily.
Malta eventually fell under the rule of Constantinople in the 6th century. Some people believe that the Vandals and the Ostrogoths may have occupied the islands briefly in the 5th century, but there is no conclusive evidence for this hypothesis. Under Byzantine rule, Malta remained a part of the Sicilian province. Evidence from this era shows that the islands may have played an important strategic role for the empire as harbors for the next couple of centuries.
During this time, the improved fortifications may have reduced the size of the main settlements. In the late 9th century, Muslims from North Africa took over the city of Melite. After the city’s destruction, some historians claim it remained uninhabitable until 1050, while others think it might have been thriving until that point.
Muslim Conquest of Sicily
The Byzantines tried to take the Muslim settlement back but to no avail. Nevertheless, the islands changed hands once again with the Norman conquest. They took over Sicily and, from there, continued onward to Malta. The Muslim and Christian presence in the previous millennium had substantially impacted the island. Even after it fell to the newfound Kingdom of Sicily, a healthy Muslim population remained in the area.
A Muslim uprising in 1122 was squashed, and the islands were reconquered. The Muslims were allowed to practice their religion freely until the 13th century. Malta had many influences. The Byzantines had brought Eastern Orthodox, the Arabs had brought Islam, and now, the Europeans were bringing Roman Catholicism. One of the primary reasons for this was the migration of Sicilians to the islands.
The archipelago would undergo many changes, indicative of the changes in the north. Malta continued to have strong links with North Africa. However, a few historians believe that there were no Muslim civilians or serfs in the region by the mid-13th century.
In 1530, Holy Roman Emperor Charles V gave Malta to the Order of Saint John. They were more commonly known as the Knights Hospitaller, which was a military order of the Roman Catholic Church. The Knights ruled the islands for the next 275 years, making the island their domain. The Knights were initially tasked with providing assistance, medical or otherwise, to pilgrims.
The Ottoman Empire had laid siege to Malta in 1565 but failed to capture the settlement. For the next two centuries, the Knights turned the island into their home, but by the late 18th century, the Order was declining.
Rising of the Priests
In 1775, the Maltese revolted against the Knights in a rebellion known as the Rising of the Priests; it is also remembered as the Maltese Rebellion of 1775. The uprising was squashed, and the leaders were killed or exiled.
The Knights had not interacted much with the Maltese; still, they managed to imprint much of their cultural identity on the population. However, the Knights’ declining prowess meant that they could not rule the archipelago for much longer, and so, in 1798, Napoleon took over the islands. Still, the French presence on Malta was short-lived, as the British took it over by 1800. Two years later, the French signed the Treaty of Amiens with the British, in which the British were supposed to leave the island.
The British failed to adhere to the treaty. The Maltese demands for self-rule were not heeded, as the Maltese harbors were an essential strategic asset for the British.
The Maltese were refused home rule, and until the 20th century, the islands’ political status underwent several changes. During the Crimean War, the economic condition of the islands improved, but after the opening of the Suez Canal in 1869, they retracted.
In 1921, the Maltese were given the right to self-govern under British rule. The British retained the right to control foreign and military issues while the local government handled domestic affairs. In 1933, tensions flared again as the archipelago returned to a strict colonial regime. During the Second World War, the Axis powers bombed the islands, but the locals did not surrender.
The British acknowledged the bravery of the local people. In 1947, Malta was given the right to self-govern again. It was revoked in 1959 and then restored in 1962. The islands received their official independence on September 21, 1964. On December 13, 1974, Malta became a republic.
The rule of the Nationalist Party from 1962 to 1971 was an era of alignment with the West. In contrast, the rule of the Malta Labour Party emphasized the sovereignty of the country, leading to the complete withdrawal of British rule by 1979.
The Nationalist Party retook the reins in the 1990s and applied for inclusion in the European Union. In 2004, Malta became a member of the EU after a referendum. Today, Malta is the fourth most densely populated sovereign country globally, despite being the 10th smallest by area. Its capital, Valletta, is the smallest capital in the European Union by area and population.
Today, Malta is a great tourist destination. Its warm climate and recreational outlook on life offer an excellent resort for tourists. Several architectural and historical monuments provide a window into the country’s rich history.
1781: A battle took place between the Dutch and the British Armies in the Dogger bank.
1874: Japan introduced a postal saving system on the lines of England.
1914: The first electric traffic light was installed in America.
1940: Cuba, Uruguay, Mexico, and Argentina declared nationality in World War l.
1950: Warsaw was occupied by Germany in the first World War. Earlier this area was under the control of Russia.
1923: Henry Sullivan become the first American swimmer to cross the English channel.
1944: World War ll: polish rebels free 348 jewies prisoners and Liberate the German labor camp (Gesowka) in warsaw.
1949: An earthquake measuring 6.7 in Ecuador’s capital Quite killed 6,000 people.
1960: The African country Burkina Faso declared independent.
1963: Russia, Britain, and the United States signed a nuclear test prohibition Treaty in Moscow.
1991: Justice Leila Seth becomes the first woman judge in the Delhi High court. She was also the first lady lower to be destinated as a senior counsel by the Supreme Court of India.
2010: 70% of Kenya’s citizens supported the creation of a new constitution a part of democratic reformers in a referendum.
2001: NASA scientists climbed water on Mars in the journal Science.
2018: Mughal Sarai junction in Uttar Pradesh was renamed Deendayal Upadhyaya Railway Station.
2020: The center informs the supreme court that it has accepted the recommendation of the Bihar government for a CBI inquiry into the death of actress Sushant Singh Rajput. This was shared by Solicitor General Tushar Mehta, appearing for the center.
2020: Former Chief of Staff of the Guyana Defence Force, Brigadier (Retd) mark Anthony Phillips was sworn in as the Prime Minister of Guyana.
2020: The E-Gyan Mitra mobile app was launched by the Union Territory of Dadra-Nagar Haveli and Daman-Diu. “E-Gyan Mitra” mobile app was launched to provide online education.
Borns On This Day 05 Aug
1662: Scottish history and James and Anderson were born.
1913: Neil Armstrong, the world’s first astronaut to walk on the moon, was born.
1915: Famous poet Shivmangal Singh Suman was born.
Deaths On This Day 05 Aug
1950: India’s famous freedom fighter and the first chief minister of Assam Gopinath Bordoloi, passed away.
2000: Lala Amarnath, the great and famous cricketer of India passed away.
Why People Want to Live in America: Every year, more than one million immigrants arrive in the United States as permanent residents, refugees, and asylum-seekers. Why is this?
The United States continues to be one of the most popular countries for immigration; people come from around the globe to settle down because they want to live in America. Historically, there have been many reasons that people have wanted to immigrate to America; these reasons would shape the cultural identity and policy of the nation as it grew into the world power that it is today.
These reasons still drive immigration today because they offer people the freedom to chase dreams, live their lives in relative peace, and find their own versions of success. Although the United States is far from perfect, here are a few reasons why people have migrated to America in hopes of a new life.
1. America offered economic opportunities
The United States has never promised economic success to its citizens; instead, it has offered the opportunity for everyone to be successful, and people succeed or fail based on their own efforts. This ideal has not always been upheld perfectly, but it has drawn many immigrants to America’s shores. Many of the first immigrants came to the American colonies to become wealthy – only the first-born son inherited land in England, so younger sons had to seek their fortunes elsewhere.
European countries started colonies to make money from crops like tobacco and animal skins. As the colonies grew, they became a source of taxation, although this eventually backfired for the British as the American Revolution started with cries like “No taxation without representation!” After the French and Indian War, Britain tried to pay off their war debts with a plan that involved enforcing taxation, which the colonists protested by declaring themselves independent.
The economic opportunities continued after the United States started its journey to become an independent country. The Industrial Revolution in America was marked by the creation of factories, urbanization, and interchangeable parts. These might not seem groundbreaking to us today, but interchangeable parts revolutionized how things are made.
Relatively unskilled workers could now construct things like muskets and, later, sewing machines and typewriters, so the demand for workers was strong enough to support the new flow of immigrants coming from Europe looking for a job. Factory work was often dangerous in the 1800s, but people kept coming because America offered the chance for them to make a life.
2. America offered religious freedom
Before America was even a country, people longed to immigrate to it. While many of the first European immigrants were looking to make their fortunes, others came because the new land offered them religious freedom.
The Pilgrims first made their dangerous journey on the Mayflower because the New World offered them religious and economic opportunities that Europe did not. These Pilgrims were part of the Puritan movement in England, which sought to purify the Church of England. They tried to live morally upright lives; however, their highly conservative religious sect was not popular in England, so the Pilgrims moved to the Dutch Republic, where they found religious tolerance.
Despite this, the Pilgrims weren’t happy – they lived in poverty and watched as their children began assimilating into the Dutch culture around them. They needed somewhere where they practice their religion freely and have economic success; that place was America.
The Pilgrims then boarded the Mayflower and founded their colony in Massachusetts. Although they barely survived their first winter, they eventually made their colony reasonably profitable. America offered so much religious freedom to everyone who came because it did not belong to one European country. England, France, the Dutch Republic, and Spain sent expeditions and had colonies there, so there was no single approved religion.
The Pilgrims weren’t the only religious group to immigrate to America; the Huguenots – a name for French Protestants – and the Quakers eventually found their way to its shores as well, and with so many groups who had lived through religious persecution, America began its journey with an inclination towards religious tolerance and plurality.
3. America offered land for immigrants
When the United States first became independent, it wasn’t very big – 13 colonies in all – situated along the continent’s eastern coast and across the Appalachian Mountains. But this quickly changed when Thomas Jefferson negotiated the Louisiana Purchase in 1803.
This area was about 828,000 square miles running from New Orleans to modern-day North Dakota and Montana; Thomas Jefferson negotiated the land deal with the French after the French Revolution left their government scrambling for money. They agreed to sell the land to the United States for fifteen million dollars, which came out to approximately eighteen dollars per square mile.
This purchase doubled the size of the United States and allowed Americans to expand west. At the time, many people associated owning land with freedom and upward mobility, but there was so much land that the United States government passed the Homestead Act in 1862.
This Act granted heads of families 160 acres of land provided they farmed or otherwise improved it and lived there for at least five years.
The intent was to move ambitious citizens west to settle the land under American control, and it was reasonably successful at accelerating Western expansion. It did come at the cost of displacing the Native American tribes who already lived there, though. Of course, some people took advantage of the Homestead Act – speculators, cattle farmers, and railroads all claimed land intended for small farmers. However, people continued to move west, searching for land, more freedom, and wealth, and they developed new towns and states along the way.
4. America offered democracy and political equality
When the United States began, voting was generally limited to only white, land-owning men, although a few states did allow for other groups like Black men and unmarried women to vote early on.
While this may seem very restrictive to us today, it was still a step forward – other countries had monarchs, so there wasn’t much room for voting there. An even greater step forward came during Andrew Jackson’s presidency; Jackson believed that restricting voting rights to land-owning males allowed the government to be run by the elites, creating an aristocracy.
He also believed in universal male suffrage; all white male citizens over the age of 21 should be allowed to vote. Jacksonian democracy did not extend to women or people of color, but it was still an important step toward offering a voice in the government to all people.
Black people won the right to vote after the Civil War – the Fourteenth Amendment confirmed their citizenship, and the Fifteenth Amendment guaranteed their right to vote. Still, the establishment of Jim Crow laws discriminated against Black citizens and prevented them from exercising their rights.
These laws were finally taken down during the Civil Rights Movement in the 1960s, allowing all citizens the right to vote regardless of skin color. Native Americans were not considered citizens until 1924. Although Asian immigrants could become citizens before 1952, it was hard to do due to federal laws.
There was not a set law in place barring restrictions on citizenship until that year. Women did not receive the federally-acknowledged right to vote until 1920 under the Nineteenth Amendment. Some states had allowed women the right to vote, but those rights were limited and sometimes taken away depending on the prevailing political climate.
The suffragists began to campaign for universal female suffrage in 1869, but it would take a world war before activists were finally able to convince the nation that women deserved citizenship and the right to vote.
5. America offered educational opportunities
While adults usually immigrated looking to improve their fortunes, they also hoped their children could have better lives. Discrimination continued to be a major issue in education until 1982 when the Supreme Court ruled in Plyler v. Doe that undocumented immigrants could not be denied access to the public school system. Education continues to be a major reason why people leave their home countries and move to the United States.
Immigrants from Latin American countries have confirmed that education is a big reason they come, but not the primary reason. Students in Latin American schools often struggle with poverty and gang violence – even if the school is free, the books, fees, and uniforms are not covered by the government, and schools are a recruiting ground for gangs. Some teenagers have immigrated to America to escape the violence and finish their education in peace.
Today, immigrant students and children of immigrants make up an increasing part of higher education; one study from 2020 suggested that almost sixty percent of the
growth in university enrollment came from immigrants and first-generation Americans. Although they are still facing issues and barriers in the navigation of a new environment, people are continuing to immigrate with the hope of creating a better future for themselves and their children.
6. America offered refuge from oppressive regimes
Some immigrants have come to America’s shores looking for refuge from oppression, disaster, or war. One of the more famous human migrations to America was during the Irish Potato Famine, which began in 1845.
The Irish were poor and utterly dependent upon the potato for their food; there was only one potato variety, and they had no backup plan. In 1845, a blight fell upon the potato crop, and it did not go away. Between 1846 and 1851, over one million people died!
In a panic, people fled their home country, and while some went to Britain or Australia, many were bound for America in the second wave of Irish immigration. Those who could afford it came straight to New York; others paid cheaper fares on Canadian timber ships that have since been named coffin ships – many immigrants did not survive that journey because lumber ships were not made for human passengers, and many of the Irish were already weak from the mass starvation in Ireland. Even though most Irish immigrants survived the journey, they experienced discrimination upon arrival.
The second wave of Irish immigrants tended to be poor – they did not have established trades or skills, so they took any job they could find in the cities. By 1860, though, the Irish discrimination began to die down as America turned its attention toward the Civil War.
The Irish immigrants worked their way into American society, finding better work and better pay; eventually, they worked their way up into all parts of society, becoming an established part of America.
7. America offered gold
Although the Spaniards had first come to the Americas looking for cities of gold, many people had long given up on finding gold in the United States; they were working to gain their wealth by other means. When James Wilson Marshall discovered gold in the American River on January 24, 1848, he accidentally started the California Gold Rush, even though he was first met with disbelief.
The rush began in 1848 and peaked in 1852. Thousands of American men left their jobs and homes to move west to get their share of the gold, which dwindled quickly under the sudden demand.
The California Gold Rush made some people a fortune; it ruined others financially. Americans weren’t the only ones moving to California; people immigrated from as far away as Peru, Hawaii, and China to get their piece of gold, and Europeans would soon follow.
In 1852 alone, 20,000 Chinese immigrants (out of a total of 67,000 immigrants) made their way to California. This created a multi-cultural environment, but immigrants were not treated well, especially as the gold began to dwindle. Violence was common, and the law did not often protect immigrants from such attacks. Many Chinese immigrants stayed anyway – they started shops or worked for the railroad building tracks.
The work was dangerous, and these immigrants were paid less than the white workers and had to pay a foreigner tax, but the Chinese workers stayed because they could earn more money in America than they could in China. Although the California Gold Rush did not bring instant wealth to everyone, it did bring many immigrants to the west coast and continued to stir the melting pot of America.
1930: In the European country of Belgium, a law was made for the wages of young children.
1935: The Government of India Act 1935 was approved by the British Monarchy.
1954: The Government of Pakistan agreed to adopt the song written by Hafiz Jalandhar as the national anthem.
1956: The country’s first nuclear research reactor Apsara was started.
1967: The construction of Nagarjuna Sagar, the world’s longest masonry dam, was completed.
1997: Mohd. Khatami was sworn in as the new President of Iran.
2002: The 17th Commonwealth Games were held in Manchester, England.
2004: NASA named the Altix supercomputer KC us Kalpana Chawla.
2007: The American spacecraft to explore marks was launched.
2008: Navratna’s status was accorded to the Shipping Corruption of India by the government.
2014: Hamas and Israel agreed on a 72-hour ceasefire.
2018: Chief justice of Uttarakhand K. M. Joseph, Chief Justice of Madras India Banerjee, and Chief Justice of Odisha Vineet Saran was appointed supreme court judges.
2020: In Himachal Pradesh, the Union Education Minister Ramesh Pukhriyal Nishank laid the foundation stone of the Indian Institute of Management (IIM) at Dhaula Kuan in the Sirmaur district.
2020: Pakistani pm Imran Khan released in the new political map that shows Junagadh, sir Creek and Manavadar in Gujarat its territory, along with Jammu and Kashmir and Ladakh. The move was taken on the occasion of the first anniversary of the abortion of Article 370 in Jammu and Kashmir.
Borns On This Day in History 04 Aug
1522: Rana Udai Singh, the ruler of Mewar the father of Maharana Pratap, was born.
1730: Sadashivrao Bhau, a famous Maratha hero in Hindi history, was born.
1845: Feroze shah Mehta an Indian politician and the architect of the Bombay Municipal Communication (Chapter) was born.
Deaths On This Day in History 04 Aug
2006: Nandini Satpathy the first woman chief minister of Orissa and writer, died. Her birthday is celebrated as national daughters’ Day-Nandini diwas.
1492: Italian Christopher Columbus slides with three ships from Spain to explore India.
16 17 Robert La salle built the first ship in America.
1780: Gwalior was captured by Captain Bruce under Major Popham.
1900: The Firestone Tire & Rubber Company was founded.
1914: The first seaplane passed through the Panama Canal.
1957: Abdul Rahman was elected the new leader of Malaysia. Malaysia got independence from Britain under his leadership.
1960:The best American country of Niger gained independence from France.
1985: Baba Amte was awarded the Roman Magsaysay Award for public service.
2003: The Anglican Church of America decide to make a home sexual bishop. Jane Robinson of New Hampshire was made a bishop by the overwhelming majority of the House of Deputies of the Episcopal Church.
2004:The American spacecraft messenger left for the planet, Mercury.
2006: The United States said that it would not an India in uranium enrichment.
2007: Progress M-61, a Russian spacecraft headed from the International Space Station, successfully research its orbit.
2020 Andhra Pradesh government had launched an innovative virtual cyber crime awareness program named ‘e-Raksha- Bandhan’. The objective of his program is to create awareness among the public about cybercrime across the state.
2024: Former Spain King Juan Carlos decided to leave the country amid serial serious corruption allegations.
2020: Ramarchan Puja begins at the RAM janmabhoomi site ahead of the foundation stone laying ceremony of Ram temple in Ayodhya. This puja was performed as a prayer to invite all the major decisions before the arrival of lord Rama.
Borns On This Day 03 Aug
1886: Maithili Sharan Gupt, an important poet of Khari Boli, was born.
1984: Sunil Chhatri, a famous Indian football player, was born.
1890: Sri Prakash, the famous revolutionary of India and the first High Commissioner of Pakistan, was born.
Deaths On This Day 03 Aug
1993: Swami chinmayandan, India’s famous spiritual thinker and World famous scholar of Vedanta philosophy, passed away.
1858: The British government passed the Government of India Act, after which the governance of India passed from the East India Company to the British monarchy. The position of viceroy was created as the top representative of the British government in India.
1870 The world’s first underground tube Railway tower Subway was opened in London.
1932: The positron (the antiparticle of the electron) was discovered by Carl D. Anderson.
1944: Turkey broke diplomatic relations with Germany.
1984: The Human Rights court in Europe declared the phone tapping of a UK citizen a violation of the European Convection.
1987: Vishwanathan Anand won the World junior chess championship.
1990: More than 1 lakh Iraqi soldiers attack and Kuwait early in the morning with 700 tanks. This was the cause of the first gulf war.
1999: The Brahmputra Mail collided head-on with the Avadh Assam Express at Faisal. Both the trains were running on the same track from opposite directions.
1999: China tested a long-range 8000 km surface-to-surface missile.
2001: Pakistan allowed the import of sugar from India.
2003: The United nation security council approved the sending of troops to stop the conflict in Liberia.
2007: A fire broke out in a supermarket in Paraguay’s capital Asuncion, killing 300 people.
2020: the United Arab Emirates (UAE) become the first Arab nation to produce nuclear power after the commissioning of unit one of the Barakah nuclear power plant in Abu Dhabi. Is now using nuclear fuel for power generation under the ”Critically” phase. The plant will start commercial operation later this year.
2020: Kotak Mahindra Bank head announced a launch of a 2 month-long campaign coal ‘Kona Kona umeed’ with huge offers and discounts to install hope and optimism among its customer amid the coronavirus pandemic.
Borns On This Day 02 Aug
1877: Pandit Ravi Shankar Shukla, the first chief minister of Madhya Pradesh was born.
1878: Pingali Venkayya, who composed the national flag of India Tricolour’,was born.
1922: One of the famous entrepreneurs under the pressure from India G.P.Birla was born.
Deaths On This Day 02 Aug
1980 ramkinkar baij, the famous sculpture that was awarded the Padma Bhushan, passed away.
Holi Festival: It is illegal to kill cows in many Indian states; jail time often awaits the cow criminal! It may seem strange to Western tastes, but there is an abundance of cows in India who live without any danger of being eaten.
The laws prohibit the intentional slaughter of cows – luckily, it does make an exemption for accidents or self-defense. Still, even with a few exceptions and veterinary certificates to put down old cows, there is a serious overpopulation problem in some parts of India.
This situation has come about due to the Hindu belief that all living things are sacred, including cows. However, their milk and other dairy products feature prominently in Indian cuisine, showing that the cows are more than just a herd of large, wandering vagabonds.
Their religious designation is woven deep into India’s history, going back to the prehistoric people. They are still a uniting factor in Hinduism today. What are the historical reasons that cows are considered holy?
The first people in India were the Harappans and the Sarasvati, who lived there from about 7000 to 3300 BCE. They mostly lived in family groups, but the river valley allowed them to form an agrarian society and possibly the world’s oldest cities.
The drivers were reliable and flooded twice a year, allowing the Harappans to have two growing seasons; they could grow enough food to feed their families and have a respectable stockpile. Some families even kept animals like sheep, goats, and cows, but most Harappans and Sarasvati were vegetarians. Domesticated animals were not common, and crops were plentiful. If they ate meat, they tended to eat chicken or junglefowl.
The revolution for the Indus Valley people was moving from a nomadic lifestyle to building cities, which Victorian archeologists later discovered. These cities were carefully planned into rows and squares, and they even had a city-wide drainage system that surpassed the sewage systems the Victorian archeologists were using at home.
The cities were also filled with artwork, trade relics, and religious documents. Historians are still working to decipher the ancient Harappan writings, which include drawings of elephants, rhinoceros, and lions.
Their civilization appears to be more complex than just city planning; they also built ships and established trade routes to places like Mesopotamia and Egypt. They would trade precious items like gold, ivory, and cotton for bronze, tin, silver, and soapstone.
The Harappans and the Sarasvati had strong links to the world outside of India, but archeologists are most intrigued that they do not appear to have had a lot of weaponry. It’s typical for ancient civilizations to have many swords, spears, and arrowheads, but the Indus Valley civilizations do not appear to have been involved in much war. It wasn’t completely peaceful – some copper spears and clay balls have been discovered – but this seems to have been a largely peaceful time in India’s history.
This first Indian civilization eventually faded away – historians aren’t quite sure why their civilization died, but they were most likely not forced out by war. There appear to have been natural disasters, like earthquakes and unusual flooding, which caused these first people to abandon their cities; in their place, the Aryan people moved in.
The Aryans were a nomadic group called Vedic Aryans or Indo-Europeans. After the Harappan civilization had faded, this new group crossed over the mountains with their herds of cattle, looking for grazing land. They bonded with the local people who remained, and their cultures mingled – the dominant language became Aryan, but the prevailing agricultural practices resembled the Sarasvati tradition, even though the Indo-Europeans built their own cities.
Historians even believe that the Aryan people – not the indigenous ones – wrote the famous Vedic texts – even though some Vedic artifacts appear to predate the arrival of these Indo-Europeans.
Hinduism’s Holy Books: the Vedas
The Vedas are important in the Hindu religion; they give many of its fundamental teachings. It is possible that the Vedas show collaboration between the first people of India and the Aryans. When the Vedic Aryans moved their cattle across the mountains into the Indian subcontinent, they believed cows were a sacred and respected part of life.
They used their cows for milk, not meat. While these people were not vegetarians, the belief that cows are holy has persisted in many Hindu sects today. What are the religious reasons that Hindus consider cows to be holy? Although there are many deities in Hinduism, cows are not gods; their holy status comes more from what they represent than what they actually are. All life is valuable in Hindu belief, and the cow symbolizes other creatures and Mother Earth.
The cow represents life, goodness, and nourishment. Even though beef is usually not consumed by Hindus, cows still provide many essential things to life, like milk, ghee, and fertilizer. The cow is often revered for her generosity because of her milk production; milk is used in Indian cuisine today and would have been important to the survival of the Vedic Aryans.
The cow also symbolized a nonviolent lifestyle that conforms to ahimsa – a Hindu ideal of noninjury to all living creatures. Although Hindus respect and honor the cow, not all sects worship it, even though the cow can play an important role in religious festivals and ceremonies. Cow-themed jewelry and clothing are sold at fairs across India, showing the Hindu adoration of these holy creatures in vivid color.
One of the most important festivals involving cows is the annual Gopashtami festival; it celebrates the cow and its significance in Hindu culture. On the appointed day, everyone visits the cows and bathes them before decorating them with clothes and jewelry.
The calf is particularly important on this day, so calves are treated with the same respect that their mothers are. Hindu believers then offer respect – or in some sects, worship – to the cow using water, rice, fragrance, flowers, and incense sticks. The cows also receive special food to help with good health. After the cows are fed, the people also have a feast to remember this special day and the blessings that the cow generously gives.
The Gopashtami festival comes from a Hindu myth where Lord Krishna, one of the central Hindu gods, spent time as a cowherd. Back in those days, children from about the ages of six to ten were expected to tend the cows, so as Krishna reached that age, his father – Nanda Maharaj – gave the care of the herd to him and Balarama, Krishna’s older brother. In remembrance of this special day, Nanda Maharaj organized a special ceremony to send the boys off; Radha, Lord Krishna’s divine consort, was not allowed to go because she was a girl, but she dressed up as a boy and went anyway.
This is also the day that Hindus believe Lord Krishna defeated Lord Indra, who was trying to flood the region of Vraja. Lord Indra is the Hindu god of storms; he is also a warrior deity. Early in Hinduism, Indra was one of the most important gods – he delivered the rains for harvest, helped protect the people, and even fought demons on their behalf.
The most famous demon Indra defeated was Vritra, who hid all the water on a mountain. The people were suffering from the drought, but Indra killed the demon and released the water back to the people. As time passed, though, Indra was not held in as high regard; in fact, the worship of Indra faded, and he became more of a mythological figure.
In one version of the story celebrated during the Gopashtami festival, Krishna convinces some of the cowherds in Vraja to stop worshipping Indra. Enraged, Indra sends rain to flood the region to showcase his prowess and ego.
The people would have suffered and could have drowned, but Krishna refused to leave them in danger – he lifted Mount Govardhan with his little finger and allowed all creatures to take shelter underneath it for seven days. Finally, Indra realized his mistake, and he paid homage to Krishna.
The festival celebrates the end of the rain and how Krishna saved the people from the storm god’s wrath. Lord Krishna is not the only link to cows in Hindu mythology. Although cows, in general, are not divine, there is a sacred, bovine-goddess in Hindu legend named Kamadhenu. She represents abundance and is used across the Hindu sects. There are multiple conflicting versions of Kamadhenu’s origin story.
One version says that she emerged from the cosmic ocean as it churned; she was then ordered to give milk and ghee for ritual sacrifice by Brahma, the creator god. Another version says that she was born from Daksha’s burp –another creator god. Some say she was born of the vomit from a very drunk Brahma, and yet another version says that Krishna created the divine cow.
One day, when he and his lover, Radha, were in the middle of dalliance, they decided they wanted some milk. Krishna created a cow and was amazed as more cows emerged from her pores. They became part of the herd that Krishna and his companions watched. After realizing that the cow he created was also divine, Krishna worshiped her and commanded that others do so as well.
There are many versions of Kamadhenu’s myth; one thing the stories do generally agree on is that she is the mother of all cows. Out of respect for her, Hindus honor all cows, but she has not developed a worship cult following – although she is depicted in some Hindu temples.
Devout Hindus sometimes have her idol in the house; Kamadhenu grants wish and bring wealth and happiness to the home. For this reason, Hindus will often seek her blessings, even though they do not offer worship. Instead, most of the adoration goes to the cows on Earth today, which are fed outside of temples and regularly honored. How does the exalted status of cows affect India today?
Today, around eighty percent of the Indian population is Hindu, and there are laws that prohibit the slaughtering of cows. This stance has raised concerns from the secularists and the people who are not Hindu – it has been seen as discrimination to ban the slaughter or consumption of beef.
India is still working through all the implications of this; in the meantime, they also have to work through the consequences of having so many holy creatures across the country. India has more cows than any other country in the world, and these are not limited to the countryside. In 2008, there were about 40,000 cows in Delhi – and they can cause serious traffic issues. Delhi is currently trying to rehome the cows, but catching an urban street cow is harder than you think – especially because you cannot harm the cow while moving it.
They are only allowed to use a tranquilizer or a stun gun when a veterinarian is present, which is not often the case. These urban cowboys have to rely on a rope and brute strength to safely remove the cows from the streets. When caught, though, the cows are moved to special reserves to live their lives in peace, representing generosity and life. Today, there are over 305 million cows in India, a little less than one-third of the global bovine population.
The cow is intended to represent abundance and life, and for a variety of historical and religious reasons, the Hindu people continue to honor the cow as holy. They run shelters for abandoned cows and have passed laws that prohibit the slaughter of beef. Although not all cows in India today are wish-fulfillers, Hindus believe them all to be connected to the gods – and that’s enough to make anything holy.